With the aim of enabling individuals and groups to live together in plurilingual and pluricultural societies which need to develop all kinds of contacts with their international environment (immediate or distant), school plays an essential role in ensuring a pacific climate of inter-individual and inter-community relations.
National, regional and local political authorities are invited:
The Council of Europe is invited:
The ECML in Graz is invited:
Twelve months ago, the "Note of the President" constituted the agreed Strategic Plan of the new FIPLV Executive. It is timely, now, to report on progress.
On both personal and professional levels, we were very sad to hear of the death of a friend and esteemed colleague, Dr Iva Pychova, member of the FIPLV World Council. Conveyed at the time, we extend our heartfelt sympathy to members of her family and other colleagues, and foreshadow our acknowledgment of her considerable contribution in this issue.
2. Existing Priorities
The priorities of FIPLV have not changed markedly in the last twelve months, so we draw upon the content of the FIPLV Profile:
Francisco Gomes de Matos and Carmen Lucas are coordinating activity towards the formation of an FIPLV Region for Latin America, while the AFMLTA (Australia) is taking steps to form an FIPLV Region for Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific. Meetings were also held in Dunedin with NZALT (New Zealand) officers in July.
As a direct result of FIPLV intervention, Linguapax has featured in 1998 conference, workshop or meeting programs in Dunedin (New Zealand), Graz (Austria), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Melbourne and Sydney (Australia). The Workshop in Graz (Austria), which attracted 35 participants from 28 countries, has led to further activity in the countries of the participants. Articles or papers, on Linguapax or which touch on Linguapax, have appeared in Australia, France and New Zealand, with another imminent in Belgium. In the meantime, the President of the International Linguapax Committee (ILC) has invited the FIPLV President to be a member of the relevant Scientific Advisory Committee.
2.3 Language Rights
There has been no input to further development of A Universal Declaration of Language Rights as we await UNESCO's ratification of the document.
Thanks to the efforts of M Candelier, in particular, and financial support of the ECML in Graz (Austria), we have published the bilingual Language Teaching and Tolerance : Collection of Materials for Teachers. Copies were distributed to all participants of the Workshop in Graz (Austria).
An offer of assistance has been sent to Burundi, while discussions are underway to explore other avenues to assist. An example of this was J Hamilton's negotiations with Book Aid International and the recent item in FIPLV World News.
2.6 Collaboration of Teachers of Languages
Significant events bringing together teachers of different languages in which FIPLV officers participated, included the FMF International Conference in Luxembourg (Luxembourg), a language teacher symposium in Tel-Aviv (Israel), the NZALT Biennial National Languages Conference in Dunedin (New Zealand) and the Linguapax-centred Workshop in Graz (Austria).
2.7 Promotion of All Languages Internationally
The promotion of all languages took place at the conferences listed above and below, in other meetings and events, and on all occasions where FIPLV officers were able to promote this priority.
The FIPLV World News has appeared three times this year and, in the last twelve months, we have published Language Teaching and Tolerance : Collection of Materials for Teachers. Other articles and reports have also appeared in Australia, France, Israel, New Zealand, and in FIPLV World News, with others to appear.
3. Advocacy and Representation
In 1998, FIPLV has assisted in its representation at key events in Melbourne (Australia), Manchester (UK), Luxembourg (Luxembourg), Tel-Aviv (Israel), Dunedin (New Zealand), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Graz (Austria), Sydney (Australia), and Grenoble (France).
3.1 Regional Coverage
T Siek-Piskozub and T Penttilä, while undertaking ongoing communication with member associations of the relevant Regions, met with delegates at the Workshop in Graz (Austria). Feedback has been positive. D Herold attended the Annual General Meeting of the Western European Region in Grenoble (France) in November, while I have had frequent communication with colleagues in Latin America and attended the National Assembly of the AFMLTA (Australia), who are undertaking action on the formation of an FIPLV Region for Southeast Asia & the Southwest Pacific
All members of the Executive represented FIPLV at the IATEFL 1998 International Conference in Manchester (UK) in April, following my representation at the UNESCO International Conference in Melbourne (Australia). Since then, we have represented FIPLV at conferences, events and meetings in Luxembourg (Luxembourg), Tel-Aviv (Israel), Dunedin (New Zealand), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Graz (Austria), Sydney (Australia), Grenoble (France) and Melbourne (Australia).
3.3 FIPLV Website
This is the area in which we have not advanced as much as we would have liked.
The Role of Associations in the Professional Development of Teachers Survey
Responses have been received as we await feedback in response to those distributed in French.
4.2 Policies on the Teaching of Languages
Once FIPLV 2000 is over, M Candelier will begin the synthesis of Policies on the Teaching of Languages to establish an overview of world-wide trends.
4.3 Technology in Language Teaching and Learning
The FIPLV Project on Technology in Language Teaching and Learning remains a possibility for the future.
4.4 Towards the Electronic Transfer of Data and Communication
We have email addresses for many member associations, so we have trialled the electronic transfer of data and communication, with mixed results. Several encountered difficulties in accessing attachments, so the phasing out of the distribution of hard copy for both the regular mailouts and publications remains a longer term objective as we move towards replacing the use of postal services by email exchange.
5. Future Activities
5.1.Improved Relations with UNESCO
FIPLV has obtained "operational relations" status with UNESCO in the restructure of UNESCO Status. FIPLV has been actively involved in promoting Linguapax, the highlight being the Linguapax-centred Workshop in Graz (Austria), organized primarily by M Candelier. Through FIPLV intervention, Linguapax featured on the programs of the UNESCO International Conference in Melbourne (Australia), conferences and meetings covered under #2.2 above and in articles listed in #2.8 above. Meetings with various key personnel of UNESCO during my visits to UNESCO Headquarters continue, while annual reports to UNESCO are to be prepared.
5.2 Improved Relations with Member Associations
In the quest to retain and build upon good relations with current national multilingual and international unilingual member associations, FIPLV officers have participated in conferences and activities of IATEFL in Manchester and Ljubljana (Slovenia), AFMLTA (Australia), ALL (UK), FMF (Germany), and NZALT (New Zealand). Representation is planned for TESOL '99, while meetings with officers of other member associations are anticipated in 1999.
5.3 Membership Drive
Another key objective is to encourage membership of more national multilingual associations. To this end, discussions have been held with colleagues in Israel, the Ivory Coast, Malta, all Balkan countries (except Croatia) and most countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The Linguapax-centred Workshop in Graz (Austria) provided considerable potential.
5.4 Improved Relations with other International Associations
The desire to improve relations with other international associations, has led to meetings with the Presidents of AILA, FIT and UEA. T Penttilä is also in constant communication with the Secretary of MAPRYAL, while a meeting and conference in Moscow in late 1999 should facilitate meetings with its President.
5.5 Expansion in New Areas
Discussions continue with colleagues and associations in Africa, Latin America, the USA and the Southeast Asia and Southwest Pacific area, to establish relations and members.
5.6 FIPLV World Congresses
Fliers (in six languages) for the XXth FIPLV World Congress are being distributed, while the venue of the next for the Year 2003 is still to be decided.
6. Communication and Cooperation
We thank you for your support, ideas and collaboration in 1998 and take this opportunity to wish you every success and happiness in the New Year.
Denis Cunningham, President - FIPLV
Assistant Principal - Victorian School of Languages
PO Box 216, Belgrave 3160, AUSTRALIA
tel : Int code + 61 3 9754 4714
fax : Int code + 61 3 9754 6419
email : firstname.lastname@example.org
The executive committee of FIPLV held its second meeting of 1998 in Graz, Austria, on 29th September and 2nd October, where Michel Candelier on behalf of the executive had co-organised Workshop 15/98 in conjunction with the European Centre for Modern Languages in Graz on the contribution of language teaching to peace. As usual there were many items on the agenda, including reports of meetings, conferences and activities in places as far apart as Tel Aviv, Finland, New Zealand and Slovenia.
FIPLV involvement with international and other humanitarian organisations had continued, indicating the committee’s intention of reaching out to include within the field of language teaching and learning issues reflecting a wide view of the world, and to bring together teachers of languages from as broad a spectrum as possible.
Further steps had been taken to promote relations with the international business community, in line with the notion of expanding horizons in a world which is rapidly becoming increasingly accessible, and where, while the tasks of the teacher are becoming increasingly complex, demands for transparency regarding their performance are making themselves heard.
In connection with its ongoing work on promoting tolerance in the context of language teaching, the committee warmly welcomed the publication of ‘Language Teaching and Tolerance/ Enseignement des langues et tolérance: Collection of materials for teachers/Sélection de documents pédagogiques which it is hoped will be of interest to member associations. FIPLV and the European Centre for Modern Languages in Graz are keen to follow up the activities of the workshop and promote interest in this area wherever possible in the context of local associations of teachers (see below).
The representation of 27 European countries, with an emphasis on those located in recent or potential conflict zones such as the Balkans, served as a very real and pertinent focus for the objectives of the symposium, which were to make teachers aware of the crucial role that they play in developing a spirit of tolerance and the promotion of a culture of peace, and to offer avenues for reflection as well as concrete methods of working towards that goal.
The subject allowed for a great deal of discussion, ranging from deliberations as to the nature of groups and their need to protect themselves from perceived threats, to considerations of practical classroom methodologies. A great deal of impressive work was unveiled, including the organisation by teacher trainees of a ‘peace happening’ in a Polish university, and remarkable use of technology in Finland. No-one who was there will forget the spontaneous applause accorded to a brave Serbian colleague who, with shaking hands and strong determination expressed her own feelings of the importance of the workshop’s goals, made all the more poignant with the breaking news from Kosovo and the presence of colleagues from surrounding areas.
Workshops were conducted by Michel Candelier, former President of FIPLV, Felicity MacDonald-Smith of IATEFL/Global Issues Special Interest Group and Dolors Reig of Linguapax. FIPLV were pleased to note the positive reception given to ‘Language Teaching and Tolerance/Enseignement des langues et tolé rance: Collection of materials for teachers/Sélection de documents pédagogiques’ which offered many suggestions of a practical nature as well as reflections on the role of the languages teacher, of which the following (from the Introduction by Michel Candelier) serves to give a flavour:
Knowing another’s language may, because it entails communication, be a definitive step towards tolerance. But at a deeper level (…) to learn a language which is not one’s mother tongue may lead one to experience another vision of the world, may make one realise the relativity of that vision adopted by one’s own group and lead to a greater ability to understand the way in which others think and behave. As a result of several experiences of such diversity, individuals may conceive their own culture as merely one of several possible responses to problems common to the human race, and also develop, in the same way, a sense of belonging to this race, over and above the frontiers of the group.
One of the fundamental objectives of language teaching… is to develop the learners’ communicative ability. .. the language class becomes the environment in which are exercised and developed the ability to listen to others, the place where learners become aware of how mutually enriching a sharing of perspectives can be. Experiencing a tolerant approach in the language class prepares learners to extend this beyond the school environment.
In a society where numerous cultural factors increasingly coexist, language teaching (…) can (thus) contribute to the development of a solidly responsible society which is respectful of individual identities... It is no longer sufficient simply to ask how to develop the mechanisms of comprehension and expression. The cultural dimension and the demands implied therein at the level of what is known and accepted in others - a necessarily reciprocal process - are inextricably linked to communication.
Among the many challenges for teachers noted in individual contributions, were problems such as language status - e.g. in Malta, Maltese has been accorded such a high status that English proficiency is perceived to be diminished, whereas the Basque representative pointed to the continuing need to promote teaching in and about the language. Participants from several former Warsaw pact countries noted with concern how their young people seemed to demonstrate a purely instrumental motivation to language learning as a means to make money, and seemed to lack any interest in lessons which went beyond enabling them to buy, sell, and do deals. This raised the question as to whether the teacher had the right/duty to promote a wider view of language, or whether such a view might indeed stem from future personal contacts by the learner independently from the teacher - what indeed is the teacher’s role? Others noted sadly the legacies of conflict in their countries where school leavers with different ethnic and linguistic origins, who had studied in the same schools, nevertheless held their leaving parties in different and separate locations. Our Basque colleague’s notion of ‘tolerance’ as being essentially associated with power - i.e., as something which the powerful confer on the weak, was thought-provoking; similarly conducive to lively debate were discussions on how to cope with the view of language as a source of fascinating diversity and enriching difference, where that very difference leads to distrust and conflict. A case, perhaps, of learning to accept ambiguity. There is no doubt that participants at the conference would return home with many ideas on which to ponder.
Secretary General FIPLV
19-21 January Moscow State University Faculty of Foreign Languages/Moscow Association of Applied Linguistic. Theme: Speech Communication: Secrets of Success. Venue: Moscow. Information: Fax: 7 095 932 88 67
21-23 January 19th Annual ThaiTESOL International Conference. Theme: Towards New Millennium: Trends and Techniques. Venue: Ambassador Hotel, Bangkok. Information: fax: +66 2 218 6027.
3-13 March TESOL’99. Venue: New York. Information: TESOL Central Office, 1600 Cameron Street, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-2751 USA. Fax: 703-518-2535
20-21 March TESOL Greece 20th Anniversary Convention. Theme: Language Learning: From the 20th to the 21st Century. Venue to be announced. Information: TESOL GREECE, 40-42 Mikras Asis Str. 115 27 Athenes, Greece
19-21 April RELC Seminar. Theme: Language in the Global Context: Implications for the Language Classroom. Venue: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, Singapore. Information: Seminar Secretariat, SEAMEO Regional Language Centre, 30 Orange Grove Rd. Singapore 258352, Republic of Singapore. Tel: (65)737 9044; Fax: (65) 734 2753; E-mail: email@example.com; Website: http://www.relc.org.sg
28 March- 1 April 33rd International IATEFL Annual Conference. Venue: Edinburg, Scotland. Information: IATEFL Head Office, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Whitestable, CT5 2FL, UK; Tel: +44 (0) 1227 276528; E-mail IATEFL@Compuserve.com
30 April-2 May 32nd Pozna? Linguistic Meeting (PLM). Venue: Adam Mickiewicz University, Pozna?. Information: Katarzyna Dziubalska-Ko?aczyk, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodleg?o?ci 4, 61-874 Pozna?, Poland; tel: + 48 61 852-88-20; fax: +48 61 852-31-03; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
6-9 July 12th National Biennial Languages Conference. Theme: Global Citizenship; Languages and Literacies. Venue: Adelaide. Information: Jennifer Harris, MLTASA, C/O GPO Box 622, Adelaide 5001. Fax: + 08 8301 6611; email: email@example.com
11-15 July 34th World Congress of the International Institute of Sociology. Theme: Multiple Modernities in an Era of Globalization. Venue: Tel Aviv. Information: Congress Secretariat: ortra Ltd. 1 Nirim St., P.O.B. 9352, Tel Aviv, 61092, Israel; tel.: +972-3-638-4444; fax: +972-3-638-4455; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
1-6 August AILA’99. Theme: The Roles of Language in the 21st Century: Unity and Diversity. Venue: Tokyo, Japan. Information: AILA’99 Tokyo Secretariat, Simul International, 13-9 Araki-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160, Japan. Tel: 03-3226-2822, Fax: 03-3226-2824, http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jacet/AILA99/index.html
1-4 September IATEFL/SIG TDTR4. Theme: Reflective Learning, Venue: Leuven, Belgium. Information: Information: IATEFL, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Kingsdown Park, Whitstable, Kent, CT5 2DJ, UK. Phone + 44 (0) 1227 276528, Facsimile +44 (0)1227 274415. Email 10007.1327@Compuserve.com. World-wide Web http://www.man.ac.uk/IATEFL/.
13-16 September 8th European Russian Language Studies in the Present Times Conference. Theme: The Reflection of Christianity in Russian Culture, Literature and Languages at the Turn of the Second Millenium. Venue: Pozna?, Poland. Information: Dr Tadeusz PacholczykInstytut Filologii Rosyjskiej, Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza, al. Niepodleg?o?ci 4, 61-874 Pozna?, Poland. Tel., Fax.: + 48 61 853 33 90.
October 2nd Pan Asian Conference Theme: Teaching English: Linking Asian Cultures and Contexts. Venue: Seoul, Korea. Information: Kip Cates, Tottori University, Tottori City, Japan 680. Tel/Fax: 0857-31-5650, email: email@example.com
25-27 November Language TEA. Theme: Language TEA for Thinking Schools. Venue: Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Information: Dr Khong Chooi Peng, Fax: (65) 792 6559, E-mail ascpKhong@ntu.edu.sg or Mrs Rahda Raviadran, Fax: (65) 789 4080, E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
April FMF-Bundestagung. Venue: Berlin. Information: Dieter HeroldKulenkampstrasse 15 H, D-23566 Lübeck, Germany; Tel: + 49 451 3 27 91; Fax: + 49 451 3 55 43;
13-14 May IATEFL East. Venue: Bulgaria. Information: IATEFL Head Office, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Whitestable, CT5 2FL, UK; Tel: +44 (0) 1227 276528; E-mail IATEFL@Compuserve.com
30 June - 4 July 7th International Conference on Language and Social Psychology. Venue: Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK. Information: Fax: ICLASP (+44) 1222 874242; e-mail: ICLASP@Cardiff.ac.uk
17-22 July Xe Congrès mondial de la FIPF. Venue: La Sorbonne, Paris. Information: Secrétariat Général de la FIPF, 1, Av. Léon Journault, F-923311 Sèvres Cedex.
22-26 July 20th Congress of FIPLV. Venue: Paris. Information: Michel Candelier, phone/fax: + 33 1 40 18 39 51; e-mail: email@example.com
30 July - 4 August 22. Internationale Deutschlehrertagung. Venue: Luzern, Schweiz
The language of science and technology constitutes a sub-language the characteristics of which have been -- and still are -- the subject of numerous studies. Linguists, language teachers, sociologists, etc. are all showing a growing interest in the application of the knowledge thus gained, especially to the teaching and learning of professional reading and writing. This interest is mainly a consequence of the increasing role science and technology are playing on today's international geopolitical and economic scene.
It is generally accepted that the principles on which science and scientific endeavors are based are universally recognized and acclaimed. Nonetheless, things are not that simple: principles -- scientific, moral, religious or philosophical -- are formed, modulated and expressed by means of language. But a few countries only (Western Europe and North America) have taken upon themselves the prerogative of scientific language: French and German - which were the leading dominant vehicles for information exchange and research communication in the 19th century -- were dethroned by English in the 1950´s. It is then when the rapidly increasing domination of English as the world's primary medium of international academic and professional communication started having important effects, such as the loss of scholarly linguistic varieties in "weaker" academic languages, the imposition of American rhetoric and, as Swales (personal communication) expresses "a growing disquiet among those at the cutting edge of English for Academic Purposes developments."
Attitudes towards this globalization of English vary. The trend continues to be reported in triumphalist terms by anglophone commentators (including Prince Charles!). Some scholars such as Skuttnabb-Kangas and Phillipson (1986, 1989), Clyne (1991) and Phillipson (1992), have referred to this situation as "linguistic imperialism." "Is this trend a panacea or a pandemia?", asks Philippson (1996). A number of historical circumstances are responsible for that situation.
To start with, science is a characteristic product of Western culture. Obviously, other cultures, in contact with the West, have contributed one way or another to its birth and development; yet no other civilization has produced science as we conceive it today. While it is true that its roots take us back to Ancient Greece and Rome, the true beginnings of science -- and above all, its far-reaching effects on world outlook and on the course of history -- date back no further than to the turn of the sixteenth century when the star of science began its breathtaking ascent. This ascent was accompanied by a progressive secularization and loss of the sacred (Weber's "disenchantment") that coincided with the beginning of the "reign of man" on Earth and with his increasing control upon nature, a control further boosted by the explosive development of technology. "Philosophers are content with interpreting the world in different ways, but the point is to transform it", asserted Karl Marx in his thesis on Feurbach (1845). This sentence, mutatis mutandis, could very well be the motto of "technologized" science which prevails in today's world.
On the other hand, it is undeniable that science has contributed to the expansion of Europe over the rest of the world and that it is today a key instrument in the development of planetary interconnection, economic globalization and universalization of the values of western culture. It should come as no surprise, then, that one of the things western globalization particularly values and attaches considerable importance to is multilingualizm, because it is indeed a fundamental factor in that globalization process. To examine and discuss the concept of multilingualizm with respect to the language of science and professional reading and writing -- two closely related interactive processes -- may thus be seen as increasingly relevant.
The acceleration of the scientific movement in Europe and the appearance and development of technology took place fundamentally during the second half of the nineteenth century and at the turn of the 20th century. Two very important historical phenomena occurred at that time, viz., the second imperialist expansion of Europe and the second industrial revolution (e.g., the discovery of electricity; the invention of the telephone, of the telegraph and that of the internal-combustion engine). Techno-science, industrialization and capitalism (whether it be industrial, commercial or financial) are the basic instruments that determine the relations of power, the systems of production and of wealth distribution as well as the exchanges among the different countries of the world. As I said before, in the nineteenth century and even during the first quarter of the present century, science was fundamentally European. The centers of scientific production were then located in France, the United Kingdom and Germany, and the languages spoken in these countries were prestigiously considered as the universal languages of science. Thus, a great (perhaps inevitable) stride had been taken towards linguistic imperialism. After the two World Wars -- European countries having suffered tremendously from the disruptive effects of these two conflicts --, the United States of America became the center and the leader of scientific production, and the English language, quite naturally, became THE universal language of science.
Nevertheless, since the 1980's, we are witnessing a strong economic and scientific "rebirth" of the former European scientific centers (especially France and Germany) that concurs with the rapid industrial development of Western Europe and with the steps undertaken towards its economic, political and cultural union. The economic recovery of Europe and its willingness to form a strong and united political, economic and cultural block instilled upon science a like renewal. We are thus currently facing an intense competition between three major blocks: the United States of America, Europe and Japan. As we all know, that competition -- which has led (...) to a change in the concept of "scientific language" -- is not only economic and political, but also scientific, cultural and technological. The question, then, is to find an equilibrium, a mediating system that would keep intact and sound the principle of "objectivity" and "universality" of science which, as I just said, is no longer exclusively American, but also Western European and, to a lesser extent nowadays, Japanese too.
A change such as the one described above -- coupled with the telecommunication requirements of European countries and the latest developments in the field of telematics -- creates the profoundly felt need to learn several languages (for scientific as well as for general purposes) in order to face, as successfully as possible, the challenges imposed upon us all by the present world situation. It then becomes obvious that multilingualizm must be regarded as a means for science to be truly universal, as it should be. This change, which seems to be provoked by ongoing historical forces, will, in all likelihood not only improve relations amongst peoples but also contribute to their general welfare.
Indeed, English, as the current scientific lingua franca -- itself a symbol of imperialist monolingualizm-- will soon be unable to fulfill the new and urgent economic and political needs of the world. Consequently, efforts are required to widen the "universality" I referred to earlier. For the reasons given above, this new form of imperialism will therefore have to be multilingual. People will have to study German, French, Dutch and, may be, Japanese in order to incorporate these languages to the languages of science and technology. But, what of Chinese? Russian? Arabic? Portuguese? Spanish? Will these, and other languages -- some of them mainly spoken in developing countries -- form part of this great effort, the purpose of which is to truly and effectively universalize science? Now, to "universalize science" should mean not only to accept its principles, methods and results, but also to cooperate actively in its creation and to extend the fruit of its applications to the whole of mankind.
There are good reasons to suspect that the shortsighted view of the world and the historical narrow-mindedness that have in the past characterized the behavior of Europe (and that of the United States) towards the rest of the planet, will remain in power in the few countries which still exert their domination over others today. I fervently hope that I will be proved wrong and that -- instead of facing a world becoming gloomier and more threatening with everyday that goes by -- we will soon be able to see the dawn of a new, more human world in which everyone -- not only Europeans, North Americans, Japanese or the well-off classes of Third World countries -- will be able to enjoy the benefits that science and technology can provide and the opportunities these benefits bring along.
It would be naive to believe that scientific editorials or linguistic associations alone might undertake actions that would modify the poor countries' situation of exclusion from the international scientific and technological movement and from professional multilingualizm. But it is no less naive to think that these countries --by their own effort and good wishes -- will be able to change the current state of affairs or redress the current world imbalance.
The first thing to do is to become aware of the situation, i.e., to raise the consciousness of members of the academy who are unaware of or indifferent to this issue, so that when they use the term "multilingualizm" -- by the way, quite in fashion these days --, they should not use it in a partial, exclusive, unfair and supposedly universal way which will, in fact, only contribute to multiply the current monolingual imperialism, but in a way that includes the so-called "lesser languages" (Chinese, Spanish, Arabic, Portuguese, etc.).
Such an awareness should lead to our questioning of the situation; to the offering of counseling which would help implementing a true and effective multilingualizm and to a better understanding of the numerous problems Third World scientists -- these scientists that Swales (1990) so rightly calls "invisible", "off-networked", "under-resourced" or, simply, "lost generation" -- have to face in order to contribute their share to universal science. One of the many obstacles these "invisible" researchers have to face, indeed, stems from the fact that, since the languages in which their papers are written are not widely read languages, English-reading-only scientists cannot read them. In consequence, the papers written by these "off-networked" scientists are not quoted in multidisciplinary data bases. No international recognition is thus possible. A vicious circle indeed, the only way out of which is to reach a true scientific multilingualizm.
The hope that the overall situation will change is unfortunately weak, but I would like to mention here a few general options that could constitute preliminary steps (and opportunities for action) towards widespread and effective changes which could, in turn, bring about a true scientific multilingualizm. The contribution from National Councils of Research, embassies, international organizations (UN, UNESCO, FIPLV, OAS, etc.) and potential funding agencies connected with research promotion inside and outside university settings could become of utmost importance in this context. Here are some concrete steps that could help to address the aforementioned problems:
1.To implement, in the developed world, the teaching and learning of languages spoken in non-industrialized countries, what Swales (1990) has called "lesser languages". Reinhold Freudenstein, who advocates the early teaching of such languages writes (1996: 11): "The role of English should be reconsidered. Since it is an important world language, one can assume that it will be learned by most people later on in any case." In this respect, Australian language policies could well be followed by other developed nations. Indeed, in that country, and in the name of productive diversity, social equity, cultural enrichment and economic strategies, as many as 38 languages other than English (the so-called LOTE movement -- languages other than English --) are taught in primary and secondary schools of most states and enjoy the same status as English, French, German, Russian or Japanese. Among these languages, we can cite Vietnamese, Latvian, Polish, Turkish, Hungarian, Khmer, Spanish, Filipino and Chinese (Clyne 1995).
2. To exert influence on major publishers of scientific texts and journals in the industrialized world with the aim of making available scientific works from the Third World so as they can compete freely with works from developed countries (having a fixed quota for the publications of works from the Third World, a greater tolerance for different styles and forms of language, etc.). Aware of the inequities in the academic publishing industry vis à vis Third World research, Canagarajah (1993 and 1996) asserts that inducting Third World scholars into what is sometimes ethnocentrically considered the universal academic discourse can involve ideological imposition and cultural hegemony. Ana Mauranen refers to issues of linguistic diversity and the need to preserve national academic cultures in the following terms: "Insofar as rhetorical practices embody cultural thought patterns, we should encourage the maintenance of variety and diversity in academic rhetorical practices -- excessive standardization may counteract innovation and creative thought by forcing them into standard forms." (1993: 172). Fox (1994: xxi) echoes this view by saying that: "...the dominant communication style and world view of the US university, variously known as academic argument, analytical reading, critical thinking, or just plan good writing, is based on assumptions and habits of mind that are derived from western -- and more specifically US -- culture, and that this way of thinking and communicating is considered the most sophisticated, intelligent, and efficient by only a tiny fraction of the world's peoples." Fox later refers to the "western paraphernalia of argumentation" Along the same line of thought, then, the creation of bi- or tri-lingual scientific publications in languages such as Chinese, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic -- i.e., languages different from the ones presently favored in the industrialized world-- should be promoted.
3. To undertake the necessary steps to diminish substantially not only the cost of scientific publications, but also that imposed upon all researchers simply to submit articles for publications, have them evaluated by referees or edited by scientific writing and publishing experts. Referring to the specific issue of "non-discursive" requirements in academic publishing -- e.g.: the format of the copy text; the particular weight and quality of the paper; the copies and postage required; the procedures for submitting revisions and proofs; bibliographical and documentation conventions, and the nature of the interaction between authors and editorial boards --, Canagarajah (1996) argues that such requirements assume the availability of certain technological, communicational and economic resources which can in no way be taken for granted in the case of Third World scholars. Canagarajah further explains that these non-discursive publishing practices -- which are rarely, if ever, regarded as sources of difficulty by Western publishing companies -- can still considerably hamper Third World scholars who may have successfully overcome the linguistic/discursive differences, but who find the material disadvantages too overwhelming to publish in "mainstream" scholarly journals (mainly edited in North America and Western Europe).
I would like to mention here the policies followed by Mr. Peter Sprague, chairman of Wave Systems, the information technology firm participating in the "Harvard Project". The purpose of this project is to provide medical information almost instantly to any doctor in the world by way of a modern computer. In one of the last issues of the British Medical Journal, Mr. Sprague condemns the fact that "a great medical library should not be available to only 20% of the world population" (Roberts 1995). In order to make medical information more easily available to all researchers, then, the service offered by Wave technology will be based on a pay-per-price system, but charges will be based on a country's wealth. In other words, libraries in the developing world will pay much less than those in the West. Why couldn't editorials of scientific journals follow Mr. Sprague's initiative and make the acquisition of scientific publications within the reach of researchers working in Third World states?
By way of conclusion, I would like to quote Professor Francisco Gomes de Matos who, referring to the macro-issue of scientific language policy and the linguistic rights of the scientist, asks the following questions: "Given the ever-growing spread of English as the dominant international language used by scientists, what can be done to help enhance or promote multilingual scientific literacy? .... If our world is to become multilingual, and written communication is to be acquired and used in several rather than in one language for specific purposes, language educators and those in charge of the training and education of scientists should cooperate and pool their efforts and creative talents on behalf of experts in science, so that the latter can become not only interdisciplinary but also interlinguistically effective. Some day, a multilingual scientific literacy will be here to stay."
Applied linguistics, as a sphere of knowledge, can contribute to this task. Linguistic researchers and language teachers could broaden the scope of their investigations by focusing their research activities on languages which, today, are not considered as scientific-technological languages. Science and scientific languages should be put to the benefit of the whole of mankind.
Arvanitis, R., and Y. Chatelin (1988). "National scientific strategies in Tropical Soil Sciences" Social Studies of Science. 18: 113-46.
Canagarajah, A.S. (1996) "'Non-discursive' requirements in academic publishing, material resources of periphery scholars, and the politics of knowledge production" Written Communication. 13(4), 435-472.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1993) "Critical ethnography of a Sri-Lankan classroom: ambiguities in students' opposition to reproduction through ESOL" TESOL Quarterly. 27, 601-626.
Clyne, M. (1991). "The socio-cultural dimension: the dilemma of the German-speaking scholar." In Scröder H. (Ed.). Subject-oriented Texts: Languages for Special Purposes and Text Theory. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. 49-67.
Clyne, M. (1995). "Education for multiculturalism in multicultural Australia." LINGUAPAX V. FIPLV and AFMLT Publications. Belgrave. Australia. 85-89.
Fox, H. (1994). Listening to the World: Cultural Issues in Academic Writing." Urbana. IL: NCTE.
Freudenstein, R. (1996). "A new language policy for Europe" FIPLV World News. No. 36. p. 10-13.
Gomes de Matos, F. (1993) "Human rights applied to LSP. The linguistic rights of scientists." FIPLV World News. No. 61, 3-5.
Phillipson, R. (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. London: Oxford University Press.
Roberts, J. (1995). "Harvard dispenses medical information to the world". British Medical Journal. , 311(7019) 1523-4.
Salager-Meyer, F. (1996) "Diachronic evolution of intertextuality referencing in medical discourse (1810-1995)" Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Applied Linguistics. Jyväskylä. August.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and T. Phillipson (1986). Denial of Linguistic Rights: The New Mental Slavery. Paper presented at the 11th World Congress of Sociology. New Delhi. August.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. and T. Phillipson (1989). Wanted! Linguistic human Rights. ROLIG-papir 44. Roskilde., Denmark.: Roskilde Universitscenter.
Swales, J. (1990). Genre Analysis. Cambridge University Press.
The 32nd Poznañ Linguistic Meeting, organised by the School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznañ, Poland, will continue the theme of the previous meetings Recent developments in linguistic theory.
The already known points on the programme of PLM 1999 are:
The conference will take place on the premises of Centrum Kongresowe Instytutu Ochrony Roślin, ul. Miczurina 20 A, 60-318 Poznañ; tel + 48 61/ 864 92 01, fax + 48 61/ 867 11 75.
For inquiries or registration contact PLM 1999 Organisesrs: Katarzyna Dziubalska-Ko³aczyk or Jaros³aw Weckwerth, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodleg³ości 4, 61-874 Poznañ, Poland; tel: +48 61/ 852 88 20, fax: + 48 61 852 31 03; email firstname.lastname@example.org
International Institute of Sociology announces its 34th World Congress to be held on July 11-15, 1999 at Tel Aviv University, Israel. Under the theme Multiple Modernities in an Era of Globalization, the Congress will focus on the study of our era of intensifying relations and growing interdependence between peoples, societies and cultures. In examining both societal processes and aspects of personal interactions, the Congress will address the central issues of contemporary sociology and society.
Among others, plenary speakers include Joyce Appleby, Mamadou Diouf, Nilufer Gole, Alex Inkeles, Sudipta Kaviraj, Karin Knorr-Cetina, Renato Ortiz, Masamichi Sasaki, Erwin K. Scheuch, Yasemin Soysal, Stanley J. Tambiah, Wei-Ming Tu, Michel Wieviorka, and Bjorn Wittrock.
In the opening session, S.N. Eisenstadt will reflect on „The Spirit of the Time". The subsequent plenary sessions will examine the divergence and convergence of cultures, compare models of modern societies, relate conceptual scientific and technological innovations to the transformation of life styles, and conclude by analyzing "The State of the Art." Of the social study of globalization. The numerous work sessions will draw upon the themes of these plenary debates.
For inquiries and registration contact Professor Eliezer ben-Rafael, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Tel Aviv University, Romat Aviv. Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. Fax: +972 3 540 2291, E-Mail: email@example.com; Interet: http://spirit.tau.ac.il/soc/IIS99
XXI. Roèenka Kruhu modernich filologu. Praha 1997
Neusprachliche Mitteilungen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis, Herausgegeben vom Fachverband Moderne Fremdsprachen (FMF), Heft 4, 4. Quartal 1998.
IATEFL Issues. No. 145. October-November 1998.
Tempus, Newsletter of the Federation of Foreign Language Teachers in Finland SUKOL, No. 6, 7 & 8, 1998.
TESOL Greece. No. 59, July-September & No. 60, October-December 1998.
Neofilolog. Czasopismo Polskiego Towarzystwa Neofilologicznego. No. 17, 1998.
English Teaching Forum. A journal for the teacher of English outside the United States. Vol. 36 No. 3, July-September 1998.
Les langues modernes l’inspection. L’ association des professeurs de langues vivantes (a.p.l.v.), nu. 3, août-septembre-octobre, 1998, Le polyglotte nu. 35 - decembre. 1998 Supplement au Les langues modernes la nouvelle.
IDV Rundbrief Heft 61, Oktober 1998.
Boletín de la asociación para la enseñanza del español como lengua extranjera (ASELE), Núm. 19, Noviembre 1998.
Language teaching and tolerance. Collection of materials for teachers. Working documents for Workshop 15/98. European Centre for Modern Languages, Graz (Council of Europe).
Les propositions de communication sont à adresser AVANT LE PREMIER JUIN 1999 au comité d'organisation du congrès (coordonnées ci-dessus), par courrier électronique ou par la poste, en ajoutant la mention "appel à contribution". Elles devront comporter le titre proposé, l'indication de la langue utilisée pour la présentation, la durée souhaitée et un résumé d'environ une page. La réponse du Conseil scientifique parviendra aux auteurs de propositions avant le 30 septembre 1999. Les propositions acceptées seront réparties entre interventions plénières (de 50 mn), interventions en sections (en principe 20mn, 40 ou 60 mn pour les ateliers pratiques ou 5 à 10 mn pour des tables rondes) et interventions en forum (même durée que pour les sections). Chaque section sera consacrée à une problématique particulière, relevant d'un thème du congrès (ou de plusieurs thèmes, de façon transversale). Les forums seront réservés aux problèmes de politique associative, ou rendront compte d'activités entreprises par les associations ou régions de la FIPLV. Les contributions pourront se faire également sous forme de communications affichées (posters). Il n'y a aucune limitation en ce qui concerne le choix de la langue utilisée pour les présentations lors du congrès.
Le congrès se déroulera dans les locaux de l'Université René Descartes, du samedi 22 après-midi au mercredi 26 juillet midi.
Une manifestation commune avec la Fédération
Internationale des Professeurs de Français se tiendra en Sorbonne.
Paris accueillera de nombreux événements pour la célébration
de l'an 2000. Ce sera l'occasion d'un riche programme culturel et touristique.
Les déjeuners seront proposés sur place ou à proximité
pour une somme modique (aux alentours de 50 FF). Une gamme de logements
sera proposée, depuis ~100 FF en résidence universitaire
à ~600 FF en hôtel 3 étoiles. Les personnes accompagnatrices
pourront être accueillies dans la mesure des possibilités
matérielles. Des accords avec des compagnies de transport sont prévus
afin d'obtenir des réductions.
|avant le 1/11/1999||FFr 400 (environ 61 Euros ou US$ 70)||FFr 600 (environ 92 Euros ou US$ 105)|
|du 1/11/1999 au 30/04/2000||FFr 650 (environ 100 Euros ou US$ 115)||FFr 900 (environ 138 Euros ou US$ 160)|
La documentation relative au congrès sera disponible dans toutes les langues des fédérations/associations unilingues internationales membres de la FIPLV (anglais, allemand, espagnol, français, hongrois, portugais). Toute traduction dans une autre langue est encouragée.
Si vous souhaitez continuer à être informé
et obtenir un formulaire d'inscription veuillez nous envoyer les informations
|Si vous êtes membre
d'une association, laquelle: ________________________________________________________________________
XXème Congrès de la FIPLV
Université René Descartes Paris V - CTL-FIPLV 2000, 45, rue des Saints Pères 75006 Paris, firstname.lastname@example.org
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She was a university professor and a Vice-Rector of International Relations at the University of Ostrava, a representative of the Czech Republic in IATEFL, a member of the World Council FIPLV and the President of the Central European Region, FIPLV. She was a much admired and respected professional in the fields of language teaching and teacher training whom we will miss considerably both personally and professionally.
FIPLV extends its condolences and best wishes to the Pych family and our Czech colleagues.
In this issue participants of EMCL Workshop provide some recommendations to promote peace while teaching modern languages. Denis Cunningham reports on the progress of the Strategic Plan of the FIPLV Executive (Note from the President). As usual we report on the recent FIPLV activities and the involvement of our representatives in the international events (FIPLV News). Our Congress Calendar has been updated. The Member Associations, as well as the institutions cooperating with us, discuss about their recent and future activities (News and Views). In Forum on Controversial Issues, we have reprinted an article from INTERCIENCIA . A growing list of journals issued by and for language teachers, sent to the Editor’s address, is published in Books and Journals: Publications Received.
Contributions, announcements and letters should be sent to the Editor’s address. Advertisements should be sent to Dieter Harold (see back cover). Short contributions (up to 250 words), such as letters and announcements, can be type-written. Longer contributions should be accompanied by a PC-readable disc, with the article both in the original WP format (e.g. WordPerfect, AmiPro, Word for Windows) and in ASCII form (i.e. a .TXT file). Please provide a brief bio-statement with the office address. Contributions and discs are non-returnable. The Editor reserves the right to make editorial changes in any manuscript. The author will be consulted if substantial changes are envisaged.