WORLD NEWS: No. 49 – 50 September – December 2000

No ‘one way’ for development by Judith Hamilton
Note from the President (December)
FIPLV:  reflections and projections by Denis Cunningham
Das Europäische Jahr der Sprachen 2001 by Dieter Herold
Nordic-Baltic Region / STIL Conference, Reykajavik June 2000
3rd CER-FIPLV Conference
Congress calendar
Forum on Controversial Issues
News and views
Book review
Publications received
From the editor
DAC do następnego nr Influence of Features of Language on Language Teaching by Francisco Gomes de Matos

No ‘one way’ for development

by Judith Hamilton

This article is written for language professionals in the hope that it provokes some ideas about issues which may seem distant, but which, I believe, require an increasing ‘engagement’ as the world becomes smaller. They are issues close to my own heart, and related to my experience of education in some of the poorest countries in the world. 

Between 1991 and 1997 I lived and worked in the South Pacific and Africa, and visited and worked in Lao PDR and Irian Jaya - sometimes referred to as ‘West Papua’ - a country which borders Papua New Guinea and belongs somewhat reluctantly to Indonesia. Before living in what we used to call ‘Third World countries’ and what are now referred to as ‘Less Developed Countries’ (in international aid jargon ‘LDC’s’), I had imagined that, having read, heard, and seen on TV a great deal about such countries, somehow I already knew about problems and their solutions. I had read quite extensively on the subject of bilingual education, and thought that I might usefully impart some of what I knew to teachers, most of whom had no education beyond their own schooling. I meant well, but I was quite wrong in my assumptions and ill equipped to be of much use. I had a lot to learn.

One problem, in retrospect, is that in the richer countries we have been led to see relations with poor countries as one-way traffic. Images of starving people receiving food, adverts suggesting we ‘adopt’ a village child, requests for donations of blankets, toys, whatever, reinforce the message: We give; they receive. We teach; they learn. We actually have quite a high opinion of ourselves. We rarely ever consider that we ourselves might be seen as fairly useless and inadequate in the eyes of others, even less that we might be viewed by the economically disadvantaged as in any way disadvantaged or inferior ourselves.

Learning non-European languages can give access to other views on life in a way which differs from learning European languages which share many common concepts. In many indigenous languages, the word  ‘poor’ does not relate to material possessions or money, but to lack of relatives or immediate family. By this definition those living in nuclear Western families are on the edge of poverty. By this definition the new generation of affluent ‘only’ children in China - without siblings, uncles, aunts or cousins - are, despite the attention lavished on them by doting parents, in a worse position than many materially deprived African children.

When a Tanzanian says his brother or father is sick, he may not be talking about a close relative in our terms, but of some other kin whom he sees in the same light and to whom he owes the same obligations. This can cause problems with European employers when they are asked for leave to attend the funeral or other death rites: ‘Not again?’, they ask, incredulously. Family obligations in Tanzania require that all members be looked after in time of distress.

Such cultural factors have considerable implications for all kinds of relationships. Consider the question of rewards. We in the rich countries assume that money is the great motivator. Our own economies are constructed round making it, spending it and then making more in order to spend more and more. Yet there are still places where people cannot be motivated by cash rewards. When I lived in the Cook Islands in the Pacific, even though the seas and lagoons were teeming in fish, it wasn’t for sale. It was part of a complex system of trading within families to which we as outsiders had no entrée, not having grown our own taro, the local staple, or reared our own pigs. We actually had nothing anyone wanted. Offering a Cook Islander money to buy the fish he had just caught would have been to insult him, but if he liked you, he might allow you to join him on a fishing trip where you could catch your own. Another thing that was hard for outsiders to understand was that the islanders, once they had purchased what they needed immediately, a scooter, for instance, would simply give up work until they wanted something else. Unlike Tanzanians, family individuals in the Cooks did not expect to receive actual financial support from better off relatives.

International aid agencies who want to improve a country’s economic position, as well as foreign-owned businesses, do not always demonstrate understanding of the problems of using the profit motive as an incentive. Promotion is not always seen by employees as desirable. Everyone is not ready to embrace ‘market forces’. Money itself  is of little use to you if there is nothing to purchase with it. On the other hand, in Africa, aid agencies who rail against corruption in government, have themselves taught public service officials to expect a per diem of around $200 for attending meetings with donors and aid workers, having introduced the practice themselves. They now complain that no-one will turn up to a meeting without this payment. Not all of this money is hoarded in bank accounts. The homes of government officials tend to be overrun with quite distant relatives who have moved in expecting to share in the general prosperity.

It is traditionally through kinship vocabulary that anthropologists make sense of a new people. Family relationships are frequently puzzling to outsiders. In some Polynesian societies siblings and friends give children away to each other - ‘I have two boys, my cousin has two girls - better to have one of each. Let’s swop!’ Pacific islanders often have a ‘feeding parent’ where a child may choose to move between two sets of parents. The term in Cook Island Maori is ‘Tamaiti whangai’. Where the child is held solely by the adopting parents the term ‘Tama ‘U’a’ is used, with ‘tama’ meaning child and “U’a’ or ‘Kuha’ meaning ‘loins’ - such a child has all the rights of a natural child. While it may seem strange to us, many of the problems which arise in the hothouse environment of western nuclear families often appear to be avoided. There is always somewhere for a trouble teenager to go.

Polynesian and New Zealand Maori children may also change their names according to circumstances -  a death or illness in the family results in the child’s name changing to ‘Death’ or ‘Illness’. They sometimes change their name more than once. This can be a nightmare for ‘pakeha’ teachers and medical personnel, because unlike local personnel, you are often not sure who is under discussion. In some parts of Polynesia, even a child’s initial gender can be a matter of their own or their parents’ preference. Visiting teachers are usually unprepared for teaching boys dressed, reared and accepted as ‘girls’. On the other hand, gender differences are strong in Tanzania, where it is accepted that ‘girls cannot do maths or science’ and that no girl could possibly be elected Head of School.

Unlike Tanzanians who are mostly impressed by paper qualifications, Cook Islanders are completely unimpressed by academic standing, and rate people either in the light of family ties, or in terms of  what they are as human beings, not what they know or what they can do. This is a nightmare for consultants with lists of degrees who come to the islands hoping to reform or restructure the education system. Islanders will listen politely, but instead of promoting people on the basis of qualifications, are far more likely to give new posts to people they trust, who often are related to them in what to outsiders are almost impenetrable ties.

Grand scale efforts to improve education in poor countries have a poor track record. One reason for this is the tendency of agencies to go for the ‘one size fits all’ approach. In a study of aid agency documentation in the nineteen nineties I found not only the same rhetoric and advice in the Pacific, Tanzania and Lao PDR (Laos), but sometimes also the reappearance of entire sentences and paragraphs. Education consultants often arrived complete with documents from previous assignments in their laptops, all ready to make the necessary adjustments - for ‘Tanzania’ substitute ‘Tahiti’ or ‘Vietnam’. People working in the field with small NGO’s , on the other hand, often go to enormous lengths to tailor their material to the local population. While this avoids the mistake of ‘one size fits all’, it is often the case that they duplicate work already done by other agencies, and waste a great deal of time because of failure to liaise. 

Often local factors are not taken into account. Education reports by aid agencies deplore desperately low attendance rates in Lao PDR as if the parents were totally to blame for the high instance of illiteracy, ignoring the fact that the official school term does not fit in with the harvest in all regions and that the survival of the village depends on child labour: remove the children from the fields and mortality rates increase. A recent World Bank initiative supplied much needed textbooks in the Lao language, well-written, attractive and at low cost. Consultants hired by the Bank, who rarely travel outside the capital, believe that children learn best when they keep their school books at home. Textbooks, however, do not have a long life in a traditional Lao house. I saw one small naked child using the new textbook as a stool to sit on. Termites, rats, the ubiquitous mud and the general humidity do the rest. Had they examined the way in which users lived, the experts would have learnt that the concept of ‘looking after’ objects made of non-durable material does not exist. Objects are either eternally durable, like jewellery or pots, or essentially replaceable,  like houses and clothes. Expecting children and their families to look after a book would be like requiring our children to look after paper tissues.

Books, of course, are not always in the pupils’ mother tongue. Individual governments make decisions which to linguists fly in the face of good pedagogy.  The need for national unity and political expediency play a role which those seeking to help need to understand as well. Mother tongue teaching may well be the ‘correct’ road to literacy and numeracy, but what of a country like Papua New Guinea where there are several hundred languages? There are hard ethical questions too:  some governments marginalise or persecute linguistic minorities. You sometimes have to weigh up pedagogical desirability against government policy - there is no use in suggesting to an Indonesian authority that it would be better to teach pupils in Irian Jaya/West Papua through the medium of the tribal language. And it would be the height of folly for outsiders to encourage local teachers to risk doing so.

This raises issues with which NGO’s like FIPLV are likely to be increasingly concerned, not only through our relationships with bodies such as UNESCO, but in our role as a voice from the profession world-wide. Most of all we need to be well informed. Should we be concerned that half the world’s languages are likely to die? If so, do we know enough to know what position to adopt, and for which languages we should be campaigning? How can we become informed? What about human rights? Berber hero Lounes Matoub was killed for campaigning for Tamazight. Others less well known face danger on a regular basis for speaking a particular language in a forbidden context. Ought we to make our voices heard in an attempt to influence international bodies on such matters? What should our position be?

Apart from those whose core business development work is, many others play a peripheral but important role in developing countries. We do it ourselves when we become tourists. As tourists we are often unaware of the negative effects our presence can have in poor countries. Of course we can’t stop mass tourism, but we can by our attitudes and actions refuse to turn local people into curiosities as though they belonged to some ethnographic theme park where we happen to be ‘on safari’.

Donations to charity are another instance. Some charities have extremely high running costs, and some of the larger charities are now almost indistinguishable from international agencies, particularly in the packages offered to personnel. You might also want to think hard about donating to aid charities who run schemes to ‘adopt a child’. It is an appealing idea, of course, but the impact on those children and families not selected is not always taken into account. Out-of-sight within communities, the impact of cash can have an extremely destabilising affect

One reason why little is achieved by international development agencies in comparison to the vast sums they expend is the failure of the consultants they employ to take account of local cultural factors and the minutiae of human relations. Bi-lateral agencies also operate on a basis that for whatever is loaned, a large percentage must be spent on buying materials from the donating country - hence the presence of many unsuitable school books in distant places. They are also extremely wasteful. It is generally reckoned that of every dollar spent, only five cents reaches the intended recipients.

The extent to which personnel involved in development assistance are economically and culturally removed from those they are attempting to help also plays a role. Few visiting consultants will spend time in poor, remote villages and townships. These are not comfortable places. They are insanitary and sometimes quite scary. The remoteness of consultants is compounded by the fact that those who carry out initial studies, write issues papers and produce policy documents are rarely themselves familiar with the language of the country they are supposed to be helping, and indeed often speak no foreign language at all to any degree of fluency.

My personal experience and study of development work has led me to the view that language and languages receive too little attention. It is the economic rationalisations which receive attention, while gaps of communication, affect and knowledge are mostly ignored or treated as hardly relevant. The problem is that people don’t know what they don’t know, and because they cannot communicate in a shared language,  they cannot find it out. Sorting out communication takes time, which is scarce in the scramble to set up projects or conclude loan agreements. .

Communication is the core business of language teachers. On this FIPLV can speak with the authority of long experience and the backing of a well- informed membership. FIPLV is also well placed to work to influence change, not only within countries, but across borders and nationalities because it has access to a vast store of knowledge and experience through individual members of associations in all parts of the education sector. Through its good relations with UNESCO and other agencies it can also make its voice heard. The fact that language teachers have to understand something of the complex role of language in human relationships makes them well qualified to act as beneficial agents for change in small but important ways, in their own countries and well beyond them. I hope that this article encourages readers to inform themselves more about development-related matters, and that it may perhaps encourage associations to put such international issues on future conference agendas.

Judith Hamilton

November 2000

Notes from the President

 FIPLV Underway in the Third Millennium

Towards a strategic plan for the next triennium

1 Introduction

We have come to the end of the first period of the current Executive and the end of a millennium.  It is time to reflect, evaluate and plan for the future.  Consequently, this text constitutes the draft FIPLV Strategic Plan for 2001-2003, as we anticipate further activity in other areas as the triennium unfolds.

The membership of the new Executive continues to provide a solid platform for continuity and initiative, consolidation and innovation, stability and flexibility. With Katalin Vincze withdrawing her nomination, the new member is to be Eynar Leupold, whose expertise and work is well known. He will bring to the Federation a wealth of experience in Europe and world-wide, a proven record of excellent scholarship, secretarial and editorial skills, and impeccable credentials.  He is to replace Judith Hamilton as Secretary-General. Tuula Penttilä will continue as Vice-President, Dieter  Herold as Treasurer-General and Teresa Siek-Piskozub as Editor of Publications. I look forward to working with all over the next three years.

2 Existing Priorities

Having stabilised FIPLV finances over the recent triennium, a challenge will be to consolidate and increase funds - through activities, sponsorship, publications, membership and other means -  to provide a substantial financial basis from which to launch and subsidise important activities on behalf of language teachers and students.  At the same time as taking this unique international multilingual association further into the twenty-first century, it is incumbent upon us to assume a leadership role in our profession internationally.  What has emerged as a clear priority for the immediate future is the rejuvenation of the profession, which will permeate several components of this Plan.

The FIPLV Profile details the priorities of FIPLV, which include: regionalisation, Linguapax, Language Rights, tolerance, solidarity, collaboration of teachers of all languages, promotion of all languages internationally, and publications.

2.1 Regionalisation

The FIPLV Regions in Western Europe, Central Europe and the Nordic-Baltic area continue to operate, but not without difficulty.  Mariza Ferrari has taken over from Francisco Gomes de Matos in coordinating activity towards the formation of an FIPLV Region for Latin America, while further attempts are being made to form an FIPLV Region for Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific.  It is desirable that at least one of these be formed in the next triennium.

2.2 Linguistic Pluralism and Multilingual Education

 With the formation of a new Advisory Committee for Linguistic Pluralism and Multilingual Education, and the disappearance of the Languages Division at UNESCO, the former categories of Linguapax, Language Rights and Tolerance are now subsumed under a new heading.  Linguapax, however, is alive and well after Linguapax VIII having taken place in Kiev in September.  FIPLV would expect to continue to be involved in related activities over the next triennium, promoting these priorities of UNESCO, which are our own.

2.3 Solidarity

 Some FIPLV member associations will continue to assist (teachers of) others who require support.  SUKOL (Finland), LMS (Sweden) and the Danish association have been assisting language teachers for some years in countries on the southern Baltic coastline, and we would expect this to continue.  Occasional requests for assistance also arrive, such as the renewed request from Burundi.

2.4 Collaboration of Teachers of Languages

Wherever possible, FIPLV activities will bring together teachers of all languages taught locally.  This has been the focus of conferences and workshops in recent years, in Graz (Austria), Prague (Czech Republic), Sofia (Bulgaria) and Bratislava (Slovak Republic).  In cooperation  with the Council of Europe, this objective will also be further achieved in the context of the Project of the European Year of Languages-2001, and other similar activities anticipated elsewhere. On the drawing board also, is a future project to unite languages teachers in the context of an activity on the role of associations in the professional development of teachers, in which FIPLV and FIPF are collaborating.  One would also envisage the future of the profession being a major topic of the collaboration of teachers of languages.

2.5 Promotion of All Languages Internationally

The commitment to the teaching of all languages is the essence of FIPLV philosophy and objectives, addressed by all members of the FIPLV Executive, and will continue to be so.  This objective clearly has relevance to the proposed work on the future of the profession.


2.6 Publications

FIPLV World News appears three times a year and, in the last triennium, the publication on Tolerance appeared.  During the next triennium, we would expect to publish a text emanating from the Project on the Role of Associations in the Professional Development of Teachers, and others as required. We would also anticipate a publication emanating from work on the future of the profession.

3 Advocacy and Representation

Wherever possible and within budgetary restraints, FIPLV will continue to assist in its representation at key events hosted by member associations and activities hosted by other organisations.  Increasingly, we will call upon Honorary FIPLV Counsellors and representatives of FIPLV Regions and member associations to assist in this objective.

3.1 Regional Coverage

Executive members, as follows, would continue to assume responsibility as contact persons for the FIPLV Regions in existence or being formed :

·          Central Europe    Teresa Siek-Piskozub

·          Latin America    Denis Cunningham

·          Nordic-Baltic    Tuula Penttilä

·          Southeast Asia & Southwest Pacific Denis Cunningham

·          Western Europe    Dieter Herold/Eynar Leupold

3.2 Representation

Specific representation in the foreseeable future includes an FIPLV Executive presence at the ALL Language World Conference in Manchester (UK) in April, with Tuula Penttilä and my presenting papers.  I have also agreed to give a plenary paper at the SAALT Annual Conference in Bloemfontein (South Africa) in July, while being on the Organising Committee of a national conference for teachers of Indonesian in Melbourne (Australia) in July.

3.3 FIPLV Website

Terry Atkinson of ALL (UK) has, we believe, done a marvellous job on the FIPLV website, which is becoming multilingual rather than bilingual. Responsibility for the currency of content will be assumed by Tuula Penttilä, as we attempt to attract additional sponsors.  In the meantime, we would expect to obtain the website details of all or most member associations over the next triennium, thus continuing the process of establishing hotlinks between FIPLV and member associations.

4 Projects

FIPLV will continue working on projects of international significance.

4.1 The Future of the Profession

Concerns have been expressed about the state and future of the profession in various pockets of the globe.  Following discussion at the meeting of the FIPLV World Assembly in Paris in July, FIPLV is drafting a discussion paper as the next stage in the process of unearthing difficulties and concerns in the countries of members, before distributing this to obtain input on strategies to improve our profession.  This will then be shared with member associations.  We also foreshadow other work in this area, embracing conference papers, workshops and publications.

4.2 The Role of Associations in the Professional Development of Teachers

Completed surveys have been received from member associations, so this international FIPLV Project - on the role that associations can assume

profitably in the context of professional development of language teachers -  can move to the next stage of analysing the responses.  We would expect a publication to appear as a result of the analysis, thus assisting associations across the globe.

4.3 Towards the Electronic Transfer of Data and Communication

We now have email addresses for all FIPLV member associations. Consequently, we are now in  a position of using electronic transfer of data and communication exclusively for the distribution of regular mailouts. The phasing out of printed publications is a longer term objective.

5 Future Activities

At the recent meeting of the FIPLV World Assembly, considerable discussion was devoted to planning future activities.  While the above objectives were endorsed for the next triennium (2001-2003), other activities were also supported.

5.1 Improved Relations with UNESCO

As an NGO with operational relations status with UNESCO, it is imperative that we increase activity to assist in achieving UNESCO goals where these impact upon the shared objectives of FIPLV.  These are substantial.  To this end, current activity in the context of Linguapax will continue, while FIPLV is represented on the UNESCO Project on the Worldąs Languages.  It is also intended that regular visits to UNESCO continue and that FIPLV increase its representation at UNESCO forums, meetings and other events - either through direct representation or through the delegate of a member association. Annual reports to UNESCO will also continue.

5.2 Improved Relations with the Council of Europe

Following FIPLV representation on the Council of Europeąs Project, European Year of Languages-2001, we envisage participating in a range of activities related to this Project, at the same time as playing an active role in other spin-off activities in other countries in the future.  Means of closer collaboration were also discussed in Paris in July.

5.3 Improved Relations with Member Associations

Wherever possible, steps will be taken to retain and build upon good relations with current national multilingual and international unilingual member associations.  This can be done by combining FIPLV meetings with, and participating in,  significant events of member associations, as we are doing with ALL in April 2001.

5.4 Membership Promotion

Following the membership increase in the recent triennium, another key objective is to encourage membership of more national multilingual and international unilingual associations.  While the priority remains in addressing the needs of current members to ensure continued involvement with FIPLV, we must also attract increased membership of other associations, not yet members of FIPLV.  A notional target is to affiliate six new national multilingual associations and three new international unilingual associations during the coming triennium.  We expect the first of those in the latter category to be MAPRYAL (Russian), with whom negotiations are underway.

5.5 Improved Relations with other International Associations

Continuing collaboration with other international associations (e.g. AILA, FIT, UEA, etc), is also envisaged.  There are other diverse organisations, such as the International Federation of Peace Educators, WorldCALL and others, where there is some overlap of philosophy and activity, so we would anticipate further collaboration with these groups.  Another objective – if desired by the relevant individuals - is to facilitate the formation of international unilingual associations for other languages, thus fostering collaboration of teachers across diasporas and/or countries.  Languages which come to mind in this context would include Chinese, Japanese and Turkish.  There could be others.

5.6 Expansion in New Areas

Another aim over the next triennium is to extend the influence of FIPLV to areas where we do not, as yet, have national multilingual members. Following the recent membership of national multilingual associations from Canada (CASLT), Russia (RALMLT), South Africa (SAALT) and Uruguay (FUPL), FIPLV is keen  to attract new members from Africa, Asia, Central/Eastern Europe and Latin America, among other areas of the globe.

5.7 FIPLV World Congresses

The XXIst FIPLV World Congress (i.e. FIPLV 2003) is to be held in The Hague (The Netherlands) on April 12-16 2003, hosted by VLLT, our member association in The Netherlands.  Publicity will be forthcoming in future months.

6 Communication and Cooperation

 It is a challenging agenda, identifying priorities recognised by members of the FIPLV World Assembly, while addressing initiatives expressed by member associations.

To further these objectives, we need your support, ideas and collaboration. We are willing to assist, so invite your suggestions and input.  In so doing, you can assist us in taking FIPLV into the third millennium, underwriting and enhancing the teaching of languages world-wide.

It is with regret that we farewell Ms Judith Hamilton, as Secretary-General of FIPLV.  It has been a difficult time for her, as she has continued to battle serious health problems.  Notwithstanding this, she has made a considerable contribution, as one would expect of her.  Her networking at the international level has been extensive and excellent.  We wish her and David every success and happiness in the future and look forward to seeing both again in the near future.

Denis Cunnigham

December 2000

FIPLV:  reflections and projections

1 Introduction

It is now timely to reflect on the recent past and, once again, look forward to exciting activities and projects in the future.

2 FIPLV 2000

 Many of us recently enjoyed a very successful twentieth FIPLV World Congress, FIPLV 2000.  FIPLV 2000 took place between July 22 and 26, immediately following the World Congress of the Fédération Internationale des Professeurs de Français (FIPF 2000) and the Annual Convention of the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF), a united event taking place at the Palais des Congrès in Paris between July 17 and 22.  The desire to have some participants enjoy the benefits of both FIPF 2000 and FIPLV 2000 was achieved, but the scheduling of FIPLV 2000 before FIPF 2000 would have led to a considerable increase in this number.

Thanks to the efforts of Michel Candelier and his small team, Louise Dabène and the Scientific Council, and others who assisted, around 500 participants arrived in Paris from all continents to attend FIPLV 2000.  In all, they came from around 50 countries, with the most numerous representation coming from Finland and France.  I was particularly heartened to see around 30 participants arrive from Australia and New Zealand, with others coming from as far afield as Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, Iceland, Japan, Nigeria, Russia, South Africa, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Presentations (i.e. plenaries, workshops, seminars, roundtables, poster sessions, etc) were accepted from over 250 from a wealth of countries, providing a rich choice for all participants.  These sessions were available in any of the official languages of FIPLV.

The Opening Ceremony took place in the Grand Amphithéâtre of the Sorbonne, a regal and fitting venue to which to return, as this was the venue of the first FIPLV World Congress which coincided with the formation of FIPLV in 1931. The Opening Ceremony featured brief presentations (in French) by:

·         Dr Gabriel Langouet, Vice President of the Université René Descartes ParisV

·         Dr Christian Puren, President of the Association des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes (APLV)

·         Dr Michel Candelier, President of the FIPLV 2000 Organising Committee

·         Ms Anne Magnant, Déléguée Générale à  la Langue Française (Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication)

·         Senator Jacques Legendre, Ancien Ministre, Parlementaire européen

·         Dr Louse Dabène, President of the FIPLV 2000 Scientific Council

·         Ms Philia Thalgott, Council of Europe

·         Ms Cornelia Grosser, European Commission

A welcome by FIPLV President, Denis Cunningham, was included and plenary

presentations by:

·         Dr Boris Cyrulnik: "Phylogénèse et Ontogénèse du Langage"

·         Mr Denis Cunningham: "Meeting the Challenge of Global Multilingualism in

·         an Age of Technological Evolution"

·         Dr Georges Ludi: "Un Concept Général pour le Plurilinguisme Individuel en Suisse: Principes et Mise en Oeuvre"

There followed a conference group photo, taken at the same place in the Sorbonne as that of the participants of the inaugural FIPLV World Congress in 1931, before the 500 participants released FIPLV balloons - with personal message attached - at the Place du Panthéon.

 Also reflecting the conference theme of ‘Teaching Languages at the Dawn of

the 21st Century:  the Challenge of Plurality’, the remaining keynote addresses were provided by David Nunan, ‘The Second Language Curriculum in the New Millennium’, and Hugo Baetens-Beardsmore, ‘Politique Linguistique et Sauvegarde de la Diversité’.  The remainder of the program appeared under the previously publicised sub-themes.  It was an extremely rich program with participants having to make tough selections, inevitably regretting presentations missed because of the predictable clashes of concurrent sessions - despite a few presenters not arriving as anticipated.

 Apart from the celebratory photograph taken at the Sorbonne and the release of balloons at the Place du Panthéon, most social activities were confined to the conference venue of Université Paris V.  Lunches and a cocktail party facilitated enjoyable networking, while some participants accepted the offer of lunch aboard a bateau-mouche and/or other visits to Versailles and other exciting sights.  After all, it was Paris!  Some also benefited by being at the chosen place for French National Day celebrations or enjoyed the final moments of the Tour de France along the Champs Elysées.

 Over all, FIPLV 2000 was a highly successful World Congress and a credit to the organisers.  Those present were able to leave enriched and invigorated, brimmed with a renewed enthusiasm.  Those who were unfortunate to miss this excellent event ... can read the proceedings on the FIPLV 2000 website at some stage in the near future ... as we all await the next FIPLV World Congress in The Hague (The Netherlands) in April (12 -16) 2003.

3 FIPLV Meetings

Meetings of the FIPLV Executive, World Council and World Assembly took place

at the Université Paris V immediately prior to FIPLV 2000.  These were extremely fruitful, as the minutes will demonstrate, at the same time as being relaxed and friendly.  One can achieve a substantial amount in an atmosphere of contentment and collegiality.  It should be noted that South Africa was represented for the first time and, as member associations had identified delegates from countries such as Australia, Canada and Uruguay, all continents were represented - perhaps for the first time also.

4 Elections

All the incumbents, who had re-nominated, were re-elected unanimously. Thus, I am happy to continue as President for the next triennium, delighted to be working with Tuula Penttilä as Vice-President, Dieter Herold as Treasurer-General and Teresa Siek-Piskozub as Editor of Publications.  We were saddened at Judith Hamilton’s decision not to re-nominate as Secretary-General, as she has made an excellent contribution to FIPLV operations.  We wish her well in the future.  In the meantime, Katalin Vincze of the International Association of Teachers of Hungarian (IATH) was elected as Secretary-General, so we welcome her to the team.  Some representatives of FIPLV Regions have been identified, including Jean-Yves Petit-Girard of the Western European Region and Jorgen Tholin, who is to replace Terttu Valojärvi as the representative of the Nordic-Baltic Region. Peter Ehrhard will continue to represent FIPF and Torvald Perman, IDV, while Anna Coetzee of SAALT (South Africa) and Stanley Perera of MLTASL (Sri Lanka) were elected to the World Council.

5 Membership

In a period of unparalleled expansion, we were delighted to welcome two new members:  the Russian Association of Linguists and Modern Language Teachers (RALMLT) and LATEUM (ESL/EFL).  As you would be aware from my recent ‘Note from the President’, discussions are underway with MAPRYAL (Russian), ILEI (Esperanto), and associations and/or colleagues in a number of other countries, to further membership of FIPLV while enhancing the collaboration of language teachers from many areas across the globe. The future will determine the results to these plans, negotiations and discussions, but we are hopeful of expanding the scope of FIPLV across the globe, as it is the only international federation of teachers of all languages.

6 FIPLV Website

Under the management of FIPLV Vice President, Tuula Penttilä, the FIPLV Website has seen a considerable, excellent transformation over recent months, thanks to the efforts of our Webmaster, Terry Atkinson.  A priority will be to obtain sponsors for the page that has been established to publicise the work, activities and resources of sponsors and supporters of FIPLV.

7 FIPLV Brochure

Teresa Siek-Piskozub, Editor of Publications, is to be congratulated for the production of a new FIPLV Brochure.  This will be used for promotion and the quest for sponsorship.

8 Issues

In discussion at the FIPLV meetings, several predictable issues emerged as global concerns:

·          student attrition in language programs at most levels

·          the rejuvenation of the profession

·          English as the international lingua franca

·          the predicted death of many of the world’s languages over the next century

As key challenges of the New Millennium, these will become priorities for action by FIPLV.

9 Invitation

Again, we invite all members to contribute by posing issues, making suggestions, providing solutions and sharing their ideas and expertise, so that we can take every reasonable measure to ensure the success and growth of language teaching and learning across the globe.

September 2000

Denis Cunningham

President, FIPLV


Das Europäische Jahr der Sprachen 2001

“Sprachen öffnen Türen”

Leitgedanken, die der Europarat und die Europäische Kommission mit Unterstützung der UNESCO verfolgen, sind:

·         Die sprachliche Vielfalt Europas ist eine seiner großen Stärken.

·         Alle Bürger Europas sollen die Möglichkeit haben, kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Vorteile zu nutzen, die Sprach(en)kompetenz mit sich bringen kann.

FIPLV als Weltverband der Fremdsprachenlehrerinnen und -lehrer ist eines von 5 NGO (“Non-Governmental-Organisations”)-Mitgliedern im Steering Committee, dem hauptsächlich die Vertreter der 47 Mitgliedsstaates des Europarates angehören.

Im “Informationspaket” (15.9.2000 - im Internet mehrsprachig vorhanden) finden wir interessante Übersichten zu den “Sprachen in der Europäischen Union”:

Häufigste Muttersprache (in Europa) ist Deutsch.

Häufigste Sprachverwendung erfolgt aber auf Englisch.

Am häufigsten (in Europa) unterrichtete Sprachen - das überrascht uns nicht - sind: Englisch mit 91 % - Französisch mit 34 % - Deutsch mit 15 % - Spanisch mit 10 %.

Wer mehrsprachig ist, hat mehr Chancen auf dem Ar­beitsmarkt. Dreisprachigkeit sei für viele Bereiche das Minimum: eine Muttersprache - zwei Fremdsprachen, mindestens eine mehr als Englisch. So sieht es auch die Generaldirektion 22 “Sprachen der Europäischen Kom­mission”, Brüssel, in ihrem Weißbuch des Jahres 1997 (lt. anderer Angabe: 1995).

Hierauf verweist auch Konrad Schröder, 1. Vorsitzender des “Fachverband Moderne Fremdsprachen” - FMF - und fügt hinzu: “...nur so sei eine europäische Identitätsfindung möglich.” Und etwas später sagt er in demselben Aufsatz mit dem Thema “Nicht für die Schule - für das Leben lernen wir”: “...erst das Hinzukommen einer weiteren europäischen Sprache führt zu grenzüberschreitender Sprach- und Kulturkompe­tenz ...” [In: Fingerzeig. Zeitschrift für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer in Sach­sen. September 2000, S. 5 - 7, hier S. 6]

Wer ebenfalls gute Chancen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt sucht, sollte eine Sprache erlernen, die als Fremdsprache stati­stisch keine Bedeutung zu haben scheint, wie die Tabellen im “Informationspaket” mit Angabe von ‘0 % Fremdsprache’ für Griechisch, Portugiesisch, Dänisch, Finnisch usw. (unter ‘Sonstige’ verborgen) zeigt. Da fällt also der Dänischunterricht im Norden Deutschlands in Schleswig-Holsteins und der Schwedischunterricht in Mecklen­burg-Vorpommern nicht ins Gewicht - der Unterricht in beiden Sprachen sollte als Nachbarsprache - wie auch weitere Nachbarsprachen - sicherlich verstärkt werden.

Wenn fast “halb Europa” schon mehrsprachig ist, nämlich 44 % der europäischen Bürger, die sich an einer Unterhal­tung “in einer anderen als ihrer Muttersprache beteiligen” können, dann ist das einfach noch zu wenig, um ein ver­eintes Europa in Frieden für die Zukunft sichern zu kön­nen.

In Luxemburg kann sich fast jeder in zwei oder mehr Sprachen unterhalten.  In den Niederlanden, Dänemark und Schweden können dies 8 von 10 Menschen, also 80 %. Warum kann dies nicht überall so sein?

Weil man den politischen Willen haben muß, die Bedin­gungen zu schaffen. Das offizielle Europa hat ihn, aber die verschiedenen Nationalstaaten, auch Deutschland, zeigen noch nicht genügend Bereitschaft, die Bedingungen für vielfältiges Sprachenlernen zu verbessern.

Ein Blick auf die Sprach(en)kompetenz verschiedener Be­völkerungsgruppen überrascht uns ebenfalls nicht, zeigt aber deutlich, wo vor allem Verbesserungen mit Blick auf Mehrsprachigkeit anzusetzen sind: kaum bei denen, die mit 20 + ihre allgemeine Bildung abschließen, aber deutlich bei denen, die früher die allgemeinbilden­den Schulen verlassen.

Fremdsprachenkenntnisse und besondere Fremdsprachen­kenntnisse nutzen nicht nur im Geschäftsleben, sondern auch im Privatleben.

Was will das Europäische Jahr der Sprachen nun bezwecken?

Europäisches Jahr der Sprachen 2001


Alle Sprachen, auch Minoritätensprachen und Dialekte, sind schützenswert, fördernswert, lernenswert.


1.        Bewußtsein vertiefen für den Reichtum der sprachlichen und kulturellen Vielfalt in der Europäischen Union.

2.        Einsicht verbreiten über die Vorteile von Kenntnissen in mehr als einer Sprache, in mehreren Sprachen.

3.        Verständnis erreichen für lebenslang, lebensbegleitend notwendige Aneignung von prachkenntnissen und sprachbezogenen Fähigkeiten.

4.        Informationen sammeln und verbreiten für eine Verbesserung des Sprachunterrichts und des Fremdsprachen-Erlernens.

5.        Kenntnisse verbreiten über Sprache und Kultur der Migranten, vorhandene Mehrsprachigkeit nutzen.

6.        Aufklärung der Öffentlichkeit über Sprachenbedarf der Gesellschaft, über den Nutzen von Sprachkenntnissen für den Beruf, im öffentlichen Leben oder im privaten Bereich.

7.        Möglichkeiten des unterschiedlichen Spracherwerbs für unterschiedliche Zielgruppen aufzeigen.


·         Bedeutung des Sprachenlernens für alle Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen in Europa in der schulischen und außerschulischen Öffentlichkeit.

·         Förderung gegenseitigen Verstehens und damit des Respekts und der Toleranz gegenüber anderen.

A b s i c h t : Anregung von Projekten und Aktivitäten

Z w e c k : Beitrag zu leisten zur D i v e r s i f i z i e r u n g  und I n t e n s i v i e r -u n g des Sprachenlernens und der Friedenssicherung allgemein und AUF ALLEN EBENEN: lokal - regional - national - Euro-Regionen - europaweit - weltweit

Adressaten           A L L E      A L L E              A L L E      A L L E              A L L E   

Kinder                                                   (Kindergarten)

Schülerinnnen und Schüler               (alle Schulstufen, - formen)

Auszubildende                                    (Berufsschulen, Betriebe, Firmen)

Studierende                                         (Hochschulen, Universitäten)

Berufstätige und                                 (Betriebe, Firmen, Institutionen der Erwachsen- Nichtberufstätige enbildung wie VHS; Privatschulen, Akademien,

                                                               Fernstudienlehrgänge, Vereine, ..)

Seniorinnen und Senioren                 (wie oben)

Eltern und Ausbilder                          (richtige Entscheidungen für die Kinder treffen)

Politiker und Verwaltungen               (richtige Entscheidungen-notwendige Schritte!)

Verbände                                              (Aufklärung, Einwirkung auf Politiker, staatliche Gremien, ...)


Erhöhte Achtung vor der Sprache und Kultur anderer Menschen

Toleranz und Verständnis zwischen Menschen aus unterschiedlichen Umgebungen

Vertiefte Einsicht in die Vielfalt, in den Reichtum von Sprachen und Kulturen

Erhöhung der Berufschancen

Sinnvollere Gestaltung von Reisen (Urlaubs-, Geschäfts-)

Bessere Chancen für eine persönliche Mobilität

Besserer Zugang zu Informationen

Aus der Arbeit der europäischen Gremien sollen im JdS 2001 verstärkt der Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt werden:

·         der “Europäische Referenzrahmen zum Lehren und Lernen von Sprachen”

·         das “Europäische Portfolio für Sprachen”, einen Spra­chenpaß, der Schülerinnen und Schüler verlocken will, vielfältige Fremdsprachenkenntnisse zu erwerben, und sei es in größerem oder geringerem Ausmaß. Das Portfolio soll als persönlicher Nachweis der Erler­nung dienen - Grad und Art der Fremdsprachenkenntnisse dokumentierend.

·         die “Charta für Minoritätensprachen und Migranten­sprachen

·         ein Handbuch für Sprachenpolitik

·         Projektergebnisse der europäischen Programme Lingua, Socrates u.dgl.

Das Europäische Zentrum für Moderne Sprachen in Graz, eine Einrichtung des Europarates, wird kon­krete Informationen zum Erlernen von Fremdsprachen und zu Unterrichtsstrategien vorlegen.

Was können wir tun?

Für die Planung großer Projekte ist es vielleicht schon et­was spät - und es gibt auch keine großen Hoffnungen auf große Zuschüsse, obwohl die Europäische Kommission Mittel in einem gewissen Rahmen zur Verfügung stellt. (siehe Homepage der Europäischen Kommission, CILT, BIBB).

Der FMF hat durch Professor Bliesener viele konkrete Vorschläge unterbreitet, die in den “Mitteilungen 6” schon 1999 er­schienen sind - (siehe FMF - Home­page).

Es geht nicht immer um große Dinge. Jeder kann in sei­nem Klassenraum, in seiner Schule in seinem Umfeld zum Europäischen Jahr der Sprachen 2001 beitragen:

kleine oder größere Ausstellungen organisieren –

·         nur für den Klassenraum,

·         oder doch schon für die Pausenhalle,

·         oder sogar für eine örtlich Ausstellung öffentlich in Zu­sammenarbeit mit der Gemeinde oder einem Kulturin­stitut, vielleicht der VHS

kleine oder größere Aufführungen einstudieren, die man vielleicht

·         der Nachbarklasse vorführt,

·         den Eltern, 

·         der Klassenstufe,

·         einer Gruppe der Nachbarschule 

·         oder ...

kleine oder größere - lokale - Wettbewerbe durchführen und vielleicht Förderervereine oder Service Clubs wie Li­ons oder Rotary als Sponsoren gewinnen.

Jeder kann Sprecherinnen und Sprecher anderer Sprachen in das Klassenzimmer oder in die Schule locken, und zwar nicht nur Engländer, Franzosen oder Russen, sondern ge­rade auch solche, deren Sprachen wir nicht lehren.

Phantastisch wäre es, wenn aus der zuletzt genannten Gruppe sich jemand, sich mehrere fänden, die eine Ar­beitsgemeinschaft (extra-curricular activity) in ihrer besonderen Sprache anböten. Vielleicht gibt es ja auch Mitschülerinnen und -schüler, Eltern, Freunde, die eine andere Muttersprache als (hier: Deutsch) mitbringen und in ihre Sprache einführen könnten - nur ganz kurz und beispielhaft in einer Stunde oder in einem (kleinen) Sprachlehrgang.

Aus Finnland höre ich, daß alle Schulen in diesem Jahr einen Sprachentag durchführen sollten, im nächsten Jahr - im JdS2001 sogar eine Sprachenwoche.

Für Sprachen sollten wir uns nicht nur jetzt und im nächsten Jahr einsetzen, sondern stets: Das ist für die Menschheit wichtig.

Hinweise auf hilfreiche Homepages:

·         Jeweils  (Europäische Kommission);  

·         culture.coe.int/AEL2001EYL  (Europarat) ; www.eurydice.org/Documents/Key_Data/De/FrameSet.htm  (“Schlüsselzahlen”);

·         www.cilt.org.uk/eyl2001/index.htm  (CILT)

·         na-bibb.de/ejs  (Bildung für Europa - Nationale Agentur beim Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung BIBB);

·         www.fmf-deutschland.de (FMF)

Dieter Herold

FIPLV Representative to EYL2001 Committee


From the Regions

 Nordic-Baltic Region /STIL Conference in Reykjavik 22 – 24 June, 2000

We were some 24 Finnish participants that arrived in Reykjavik on 20 June. The president of STIL, Jórunn Tómasdóttir met us at the airport. The first night over there we experienced an earthquake of 6.7 in Richter’s scale. Fortunately there were no casualties.

The theme of the conference was Multilingualism is Magic. The conference started  with  opening words in many different languages.  The first speaker was Professor Haege Hestnes from the Norwegian University of Science and  Technology in Trondheim. The topic was: Opening the Foreign Language Classroom to Magic. It was an inspiring talk about the various ways of activating learners. She advocated variety and creativity in teaching methods and demanded emotional engagement and monolingual environment. The next speaker was David Marsh from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland. He spoke about: Pursuing Plurilingualism: the Potential of Content and Language Integrated Learning. His university is  the leading university in research on CLIL in Finland. He illustrated his talk with video clips from a European experiment in which he was involved. He would like to have CLIL embedded in the school policy (not as a cosmetic add-on), alongside teachers working in teams with integrated  curricula. He had a workshop to continue the topic in the afternoon. In the evening there was a reception at Reykjavik City Hall.

23 June started with Vee Harris’s talk on Learning Strategies: Helping Pupils to Learn. She is from Language Education at Goldsmith College, University of London. Her cycle of strategy instruction comprises 5 stages: 1. Preparation; awareness raising, 2. Presentation; modelling, 3. Action planning; setting personal goals 4. Practise, 5. Evaluation. In the afternoon we had the opportunity of practising these 5 stages.  Roland Fischer from the University of Vienna  spoke about ‘Cultures – Languages – Identities: The case study of Austria and the EU. It was a delicate topic, which he manoeuvred with expertise. In the evening there was an excursion to Nesjavellir.

24 June Angéline Martel from the Télé-Université in Quebec talked about: Constructing Language Learning, Constructing Societies. She compared Constructivist theories to Instructivist theories in principles of learning/teaching  practises. The topic was continued by Brynhildur Anna Ragnarsdóttir from the Education Service Centre in Reykjavik. She spoke about a project they had had in Web-based language learning. WBLL will be obligatory for all 9th and 10th graders in Norwegian.

The conference was finished by a round-table discussion on ‘How can linguistic diversity be promoted’. The participants in this round-table were some of the conference-speakers. David Marsh suggested that we should use the success story of English when motivating pupils to learn other languages. There were a few messages to FIPLV, too. FIPLV should contact other associations or unions  e.g. business to act globally interdisciplinarily. FIPLV should be the voice for getting funding for language teaching. Roland Fischer ended the round-table discussion by pointing out that  it was a good feeling that not all the questions had been answered. The day was finished with an excursion and closing banquet at the Blue Lagoon.

There were some 120 participants in this conference which STIL organised with the help of the other Nordic countries. They managed to get high quality speakers from many countries. The atmosphere in the conference was very friendly and cosy. The small number of  participants was due to the high fee of the conference and that it coincided with Midsummer, which is a traditional festivity in some of the Nordic countries.

The FIPLV Nordic-Baltic Region had its Regional Assembly, where they elected the new Executive Committee.: president Jörgen Tholin from Sweden, secretary Ranveig Reggestad from Norway and treasurer Terttu Valojärvi from Finland.

 The next conference will be held in Norway in 2004. Meanwhile there will be a seminar in 2002.

I would like to congratulate the organising committee of STIL  for this interesting conference in  exciting Iceland.

Espoo 15 July, 2000

Tuula Penttilä

FIPLV Vice-president

3rd CER-FIPLV Conference

European Integration-Intercultural Communication-Foreign Language Teaching, Poznań, 26 – 28 September 2001

Call for papers

Central European Region of FIPLV is announcing its 3rd conference within the scheme of European Year of Languages 2001. The conference will be organised by Polskie Towarzystwo Neofilologiczne and hosted  by Adam Mickiewicz University (UAM) in Poznań.

Apart from presentations and workshops devoted to the broad themes of the conference, four thematic sessions will be organised : Towards Multicultural Competence (Prof. Weronika Wilczyńska, Institute of Romance Philology, UAM), The Role of German Language in Eastern and Central Europe (Prof. Waldemar Pfeiffer, Department of Glottodidactics and Translatology, UAM), Translation – Research Tendencies (Prof. Alicja Pisarska, School of English, UAM), The Role of Teaching Materials in Promoting Integration and Intercultural Communication (Prof. Teresa Siek-Piskozub, School of English, UAM).

Languages of the conference are: English, German, French, Polish and Russian. Proposals for papers, as well as other sessions or workshops, are invited. Abstracts of about 350 words should be submitted to the address below, preferably sent as a diskette (Word for Windows) or by e-mail by the end of May.  Abstracts will be reviewed by an advisory board and notification of acceptance will be sent to the authors by the end of June. Please, provide us with your e-mail address, if you have one.

Conference materials will also be considered for publication.

Address for inquiries, abstracts and registration forms:

Teresa Siek-Piskozub (CER-FIPLV 2001), School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, Poland. Fax: (+ 48 61) 829-35-05. E-mail: piskozub@amu.edu.pl

Congress Calendar


18-20 January                    21st Annual Thailand TESOL International Conference. Theme: The Power of Practice in Bangkok. Information: Suchada Nimmannit, E-mail: nsuchada@chula.ac.th

23-25 January                    7th  EFL Skills Conference. Theme: Integrating EFL Skills: Teaching, Management and Technology for the Future. Venue: Cairo, Egypt. Information: The EFL Skills Conference Committee, English Studies Division/CACE (Mail 209). The American University in Cairo. P.O. Box 2511, Cairo, Egypt. Tel.: + 202/357-6871. Email: EFLSKILL@AUCEGYPT.EDU

26-28 January                    ESP Special Interest Group/ VHS Bielefeld Workshop Conference. Theme: English for Occupational Purposes (EOP): What is It and How Can It be Taught? Methods, Contents, Materials. Venue: Bielefeld, Germany. Information: ESPSIG Event Coordinator’s Office, c/o JWH Ridder, MA, Beethovenstr. 5, D-33604 Bielefeld/Germany; Tel: + 49 (0) 521/5212440; Fax: +49 (0) 521/66209; E-mail: jwh.ridder@t-online.de

31 January – 2 February  III Encuentro de Traductores e Intérpretes Iberoamericanos y Caribeňos. Venue: La Habana, Cuba. Information: Cecilia Infante Guerrero, Presidente del Comité Organizador, Tel.: + 53 (7) 32 9838; Fax: + 53 (7) 33 3441; E-mail: Cclfilh@cubartecult.cu

15-17 February                  Bilkent University School of English Language Conference. Theme: Challenge and Creativity in Teaching Beginners. Venue: Turkey. Information: Tulin Bakiler, E-mail: beginconf@bilkent.edu.tr

23-24 February                  The British Council’s Conference. Theme: Best of British ELT. Venue: Mexico. Information: Rosalia Valero, Fax: 00 52 5263 1960: E-mail: rosalia_valero@mx.britcoun.org

24-27 February                  AAAL Conference. Venue: St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A. Information: Richard Young, Department of English, University of Wisconsin-Madison; Email: rfyoung@facstaff.wisc.edu

25-27 February                  ESP Special Interest Group Workshop Conference. Theme: Common threads and differences between ‘Business English’ and ‘English for Special Purposes’”. Venue: Volkshochschule der Stadt Bielefeld, Information: J. Wolfgang H. Ridder, Fachbereich Sprachen, Ravensberger Park 1, D-33607 Bielefeld, Germany; Tel.: + 49 (09) 521/51-2331, Fax: +49 (0) 521/51-3431; E-mail: jwh.ridder@t-online.de

27 February–3 March      35th TESOL. Theme: Gateway to the Future. Venue: Saint Louis, Missouri USA. Information: TESOL-Central Office, 1600 Cameron St. Suite 300, Va 22314-2751 Alexandria USA, Email:info@tesol-edu

1 March                             Fortbildungsseminar. Thema: Mit allen Sinnen eine fremdsprache effektiver lernen. Venue: Freie Universität, Berlin. Information: Prof. Dr Ludger Schiffler, FU Berlin, Didaktik der romanischen Sprachen und Literature, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-14195 Berlin.

10-11 March                      TESOL Greece’s 22nd Annual Convention. Theme: The Power of Language. Venue: Athens, Greece. Information: Eleni Giannopoulou, TESOL Greece Office, 40-42 Mikras Asias Str. 115 27 Athens, Greece; Tel: + 01 7488450

23-25 March                      2nd International Conference. Theme: Contrastive Rhetoric. Venue: The American University in Cairo. Information: Email: CRCONF@aucegypt.edu

24-25 March                      LMS Sprakdagar. Theme: Sprak bygger broar. Venue: Gävle, Sweden. Information: Britte-Louise Wiberg; Tel: + 026 18 99 26; Fax: + 026 51 72 16; Email:  britt-louise.wiberg@skola.gavle.se

27 – 31 March                   34th International IATEFL Annual Conference. Venue: Dublin, Ireland. Information: IATEFL, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Whitstable, CT5 2 FL, UK; Tel.: + 44 (0)1227 276528; Fax: +44 (0)1227 274414; Email: iatefl@compuserve.com

29-31 March                      3rd International Symposium on Iconicity in Language and Literature. Venue: Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany. Information: E-mail: x7muwo@rz.uni-jena.de;

29 March – 2 April           9th SEAL International Conference 2001. Theme: Opening Minds. Venue: The King’s School, Cantenbury, Kent, UK. Information: Conference Managers, 37 Park Hall Road, East Finchley, London N2 9PT, UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 8883 3445; Fax: + 44 (0)20 8444 0339; Email: seal@saffirepress.co.uk

30 March – 1 April           TESOL-Spain’s 24th Annual Convention. Theme: A Quest for Teacher Development. Venue: Universisdad de Sevilla, Seville. Information: Tammi Santana, E-mail: tammisantana@jazzfree.com

6-8 April                             ALL Language World Conference & Exhibition.Venue: UMIST, Manchester, UK. Information: Association for Language Learning, 150 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HN, UK. Email: info@ALL-languages.org.uk

17 - 21 April                       35th International Annual IATEFL Conference. Venue: Brighton Conference Centre. Information:  IATEFL 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Whitstable, CT5 2FL, UK; Tel: + 44 (0)1227 276528: Fax: + 44 (0)1227 274415; E-mail: iatefl@compuserve.com

23 – 25 April                      III Congreso Latinoamericano de Traducción e Interpretación. Venue: Beunos Aires, Argentina. Información: Colegio de Traductores Públicos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Telefax: +54 11 4371 8616; E-mail: Info@traductores.or.ar

26 April                              SATE 2001. Theme: Information and Communication Technology: Its Relevance to Language Learning. Venue: Saudi Arabia. Information: Sayed Abdel Hamid, Fax: 00 966 2 6800808, E-mail: sts99@www.com

27 – 29 April                      33rd Poznań Linguistic Meeting.  Theme: Challenges for linguistics in the 21st Century. Venue: School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań. Information: PLM 2001, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Collegium Novum, al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, Poland; Tel: + 48 61/ 829-35-06; Fax: +48 61/ 829-35-05; Email: plm@ifa.amu.edu.pl

24 – 26 May                      14th International Conference on Foreign and Second Language Acquisition. Venue: Szczyrk, Poland. Information: Institute of English, University of Silesia, ul. Żytnia 10, 41-205 Sosnowiec, Poland; Tel/fax: + 48 32/ 291 74 17: Email: enoffice@ares.fils.us.edu.pl

25 -  27 May                      IATEFL East 2001 and the 10th Bulgaria Conference.  Venue: Plovdiv International Fair, Bulgaria. Information: George Geshev, E-mail: iatefl.bg@altavista.net

June/July                           South African Association of Language Teaching (SAALT). Information: Wilfred Greyling, E-mail: fgwg@engl.uovs.ac.za

4-6 July                              6th National Conference of the Australian Society of Indonesian Language Educators. Theme: Understanding the Language Is the Path to the People’s Hearts. Venue: The University of Melbourne. Information: Prof. Arief Budiman, Phone: (061 - 3) 8344 6650; Fax: (061-3) 9349 3472; E-mail: a.budiman@asian.unimelb.edu.au ; Ms Lily Djajamihardja, Phone: (061-3) 9684 6700; Fax: (061-3) 9690 6842; E-mail: lilyd@vsl.vic.edu.au

4-6 July                              VII. Internationale Tandem-Tage. Thema: Für viele Sprachen sensibel – Tandem. Venue: České Budejovice, Tschechien. Information: Gaudeo CB, Trebizského 1010, CZ-37006 Česke Budejovice; Fax: ++ 42 038 7 41 01 51; E-mail: congres@gaudeo.cz

5-7 July                              The Association of Language Testers in Europe’s Conference. Theme: European Year of Languages. Venue: Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona., Spain. Information: ALTE Secretariat, Fax: + 44 1223 553036; E-mail: alte@ucles.or.uk

7-10 July                            AFMLTA National Conference. Theme: Languages Our Common Wealth. Venue: Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Information: Conference Secretariat, AFMLTA Conference 2001, PO Box 201, Deakin West, ACT 2600, Australia, e-mail: willett@dynamite.com

30 July - 4 August            XII. Internationale Tagung der Deutschlehrerinnen un Deutschlehrer (IDT). Thema: Mehr Sprache – mehrsprachig – mit Deutsch. Didaktische und politische Perspektiven.  Venue: Luzern, Schweitz. Information: Tagungssekretariat: wbz cps, Bruchstrasse 9a, Postfach, 6000 Luzern, Schweitz; Tel.: 041 2 49 99 11; Fax: 041 2 40 00 79; E-mail: monika_claluna@idt-2001.com

28-31 August                    34th SLE  Meeting. Theme: Language Study in Europe at the Turn of the Millennium. Towards the integration of cognitive, historical and cultural approaches to language. Venue: Leuven, Belgium. Information: Bert Cornillie, SLE Meeting 2001, Department Longud’stiek, Blijde – Inkomststraat 21, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Phone: 00 3216 324765; Fax: 00 3216 324767; E-mail: SLE2001@arts.kuleuven.ac.be

31 August – 1 Sept.         IATEFL Teacher Trainers and Global Issues SIGs. Theme: Incorporating Global Issues in Teacher Training Programmes: Contents, Methods, Materials. Venue: Bielefeld, Germany. Information: Christine Tilley, E-mail: 114563.1721@compuserve.com

26-28 September               3rd CER – FIPLV Conference. Theme: European Year of Languages: European Integration - Intercultural Communication – Foreign Language Teaching.  Venue: Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University. Information: Prof. Teresa Siek-Piskozub, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Al. Niepodległości 4, PL-61-874 Poznań, Poland. Fax: + 48 (0) 61 829 35 05,  E-mail: piskozub@amu.edu.pl


16-21 December                13th World Congress of Applied Linguistics. Venue: Singapore. Information: Anne Pakir, E-mail: aschead@nus.edu.sg


12 – 16 April                      21st FIPLV World Congress. Venue: The Hague, Netherlands. Information: Bert Bartelds, E-mail: b.bartelds@chello.nl

Forum on Controversial Issues

 Autonomous Learning in an EFL Classroom


A classroom of 20 pupils at the age of 13-15 having an English lesson. Seven pupils are listening to the textbook tape using the mini lab. A  group of four are checking their homework using the keybook and a red  pencil. Four pupils are contacting the Internet trying to find information for their project work. The rest of the group are planning the programme for the European guests who will arrive in April, in English of course.

Why and when?

Twenty years ago I had huge groups of 36 first year pupils in the upper secondary school. English was their compulsory subject and they had to take part in the matriculation exam in three years. Part of the pupils were very good but lazy, you know the ‘EASY,-I-have-always-known-this’-type. The rest of the group were slow-learners, badly motivated or just plain uninterested. Somehow I felt that we wasted time day after day. I tried to wake them up, make them work but the only person that worked at home and at school was me. Something had to be done.

How and what?

The English course was six or seven weeks two or three times in a school year. We had a lesson (45 minutes) every day and a double lesson once a week. I decided to make the group work during the lesson. We had a target written on a work sheet for every lesson and the rest was supposed to be done at home. Certain words, idioms, grammatical issues were to be learnt. The next lesson these things were asked orally or literally or in pairs. The plans for the whole course were made during the first lesson and we modified them according to the group, their intelligence and speed and of course the time. At the end of the course we had an exam which showed the results of the past work. I decided to assess also the intensity and hard work of the six week learning period and put these two grades together to describe the work the pupil had done.

And the teacher?

The teacher is the foreman of the group having time to help the slow learners, finding out some extra work for the fast learners and keeping an eye on the group. I have always taught grammar to the whole group at the same time. If some extra effort is needed, I have given it individually or in a very small group. I have been able to discuss with my pupils, 3-5 persons at the same time. We have acted out situations of real life: banks, travel agencies, different shops or everyday life: ‘where are my keys’, ‘somebody has stolen my bike!’. The first oral tests I have had were arranged then in the 1980’s,  because this system gave me the time to have them.

The pupils?

The slow learning pupils, if we can say so, were the first to appreciate the new system. They told me that they had noticed the results. One silent fellow said: ‘Mä luulin, etten mä ikinä opi enkkua!’(= I thought I’d never learn English). Some of the good but lazy learners complained that the system was hard and boring. ‘Why do we have to learn synonyms, idioms, grammar? I bet people will understand if I explain.’


I trust in independent studies the way I have had them in my schedule. As I work in a secondary school my pupils are 13-15 years old. There is a great variety in their knowledge of English when they come to our school at the age of 13. When they learn to work independently, the results are fantastic. You can get, of course, essays, but also a miniature novel, a pile of book or record reviews, poems, sports reports, travel diaries, imaginary family albums and cartoons. I also get video plays, sketches recorded on tape and numerous improvised acts played in the classroom.

There are only four things to guide the pupils: if you work, you will learn; good grades are available for everyone; top grades are at hand if you work extra hard; cutting corners gets you nowhere.

Hilkka Vuojela

Mankkaan koulu


News and Views


Motivation... for all!

2001 is named as the European Year of Languages and is a chance for all of those interested in promoting language learning to share ideas and energies.

In the UK the Association for Language Learning (ALL) is keen to work with its partner associations nationally and internationally to seize this opportunity. ALL will hold its annual Language World Conference from 6th.-8th. April at UMIST in Manchester on the theme : Motivation .. for all!, with an agenda encouraging teachers of languages to recharge their batteries, meet up with other professionals, broaden their horizons and look at innovative practice and classroom research.

Dozens of speakers from around the UK and internationally are involved in the programme, which will be published in December and a stimulating time is guaranteed!

Details of the Language World Conference at UMIST. Manchester, 6th-8th. April 2001 (as well as membership details of ALL)  can be obtained from info@ALL-languages.org.uk or from 00 44 17 88 54 64 43.

Steven Fawkes, 

President,  ALL

ASILE – Call for papers

Understanding the Language Is the Path to the People’s Heart – 4-5 July 2001

The purpose of the Australian Society of Indonesian Language Educators Conference is to bring together teachers of Indonesian of all levels in schools and universities to discuss teaching practice, curricula, teaching techniques and other innovations. The emphasis is on sharing methods and materials which will enhance and broaden the teaching and learning of Indonesian language and culture. The conference will be held at The University of Melbourne on 4-6 July 2001.

The following theme are proposed : Levels of Teaching  (issues related to teaching Indonesian in Primary, Secondary and tertiary Education, continuity and cohesion in teaching Indonesian across the three levels), Teaching  Resource (existing  and alternative materials),  Teaching  Strategies (assessment in LOTE teaching, the use of ICT and multimedia), Exchange and In-Country Programs (types and possibilities of exchange and in-country programs; issues, advantages and disadvantages of exchange and in-country programs), and other themes not included in the above categories.

Those who wish to submit papers for the conference, should send the proposed title and abstract to the following address: Ms Nani Pollard, MIALS, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Phone: (61-3) 8344 8198, Fax: (61-3) 9349 3472; E-mail: n.pollard@asia.unimelb.edu.au

For further information please contact: Prof. Arief Budiman, Phone: 961-3) 8344 6650; Fax: (61-3) 9349 3472; E-mail: a.budiman@asian.unimelb.edu.au

Conseil de l’Europe

La diversité linguistique, une priorité européenne en 2001

En janvier 1999, le Comité des Ministres du Conseil de l’Europe (41 Etats membres) a désigné 2001 « Année européenne des langues ». Elle est organisée avec l’Union européenne. L’Unesco joue également un rôle actif.

                L’Année européenne des langues (AEL) verra l’éclosion de très nombreux projets pour la promotion d’une Europe multilingue et multiculturelle à travers presque tout le continent. En effet 45 états (membres du Conseil de l’Europe et signataires de la convention culturelle européenne) ont nommé un coordinateur et formé un comité national qui procèdent à des préparatifs actifs.

                A travers cette Année européenne des langues, il s’agit de :

·         Faire prendre conscience du patrimoine linguistique de l’Europe et le valoriser

·         Motiver les citoyens européens à apprendre des langues, y compris celles qui sont moins diffusées.

·         Soutenir l'apprentissage des langues tout au long de la vie afin de répondre aux évolutions économiques, sociales et culturelles en Europe.

                Les habitants de toute l’Europe  sont concernés par cette initiative. Les citoyens de tout âge, de toute origine et de tout profil sont concernés : les jeunes et les adultes, les professionnels des langues et les décideurs politiques, les individus et les associations ou institutions.

                L’AEL comprendra des initiatives communes avec l’Union européenne : l’ouverture officielle en Suède (19-20 février) et la clôture en Belgique ;  une Semaine européenne pour l’apprentissage des langues par les adultes (5-11 mai) et une Journée européenne des langues (26 septembre) à laquelle seront plus particulièrement associés les jeunes ; un guide destiné à motiver les adultes à apprendre les langues, qui sera diffusé très largement.

                De nombreuses conférences, des festivals des langues et des concours seront organisés un peu partout à l’initiative des pays, des régions ou des villes.

                Le Conseil de l’Europe organisera en outre des événements régionaux qui réuniront un certain nombre de pays (souvent limitrophes) autour d’un thème d’intérêt commun.

                Le Conseil de l’Europe a publié un dépliant d’information sur l’AEL dans ses deux langues officielles (français et anglais), dont la traduction/adaptation est réalisée dans un certain nombre de pays. Il propose également un site Internet spécifique pour des informations plus détaillées et des liens vers ses autres programmes, des documents de base et vers des sites intéressants d’explorer.

                Un site joint (Union européenne et Conseil de l’Europe) propose en 11 langues des documents de base, des programmes d’activités, des contacts ainsi que du matériel interactif divertissant.

                L’AEL sera également l’occasion de mieux faire connaître les activités du Conseil de l’Europe dans le domaine des politiques linguistiques et notamment son projet majeur, le “Portfolio européen”, véritable passeport linguistique transnational.

                Le portfolio est un document standardisé au niveau européen, qui s’adapte cependant aux spécificités de chaque pays. Chaque “apprenant” (élève, étudiant ou adulte) peut y inscrire ses qualifications, compétences et expériences linguistiques et culturelles, selon une échelle d’évaluation commune pour toute l’Europe.

                Il comporte un passeport, qui donne le profil linguistique de la personne qui se présente, une “biographie langagière”, décrivant les compétences en langues de façon plus complète ainsi que le chemin parcouru et les objectifs à atteindre, et un dossier avec les travaux personnels.

                Le projet a été expérimenté depuis 1998 sur des centaines de sites pilotes dans quinze pays européens : la Russie, la Hongrie, la République tchèque, la Slovénie, la France, l’Allemagne, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume Uni, l’Irlande, l’Italie, le Portugal, la Finlande, la Suède, l’Autriche et la Suisse. Plusieurs ONG oeuvrant dans le domaine de l’enseignement des langues aux adultes ont également participé au projet pilote.

                La France, la Suisse et les Pays-Bas sont les trois pays où l’expérimentation a été faite à l’échelle la plus large.

                Selon le bilan publié à l’occasion de la conférence ministérielle de Cracovie, la très grande majorité des utilisateurs ont plébiscité le portfolio: les enseignants et élèves ont qualifié cet outil de “très utile” et “d’importante innovation pédagogique”, ils ont unanimement apprécié son côté transnational qui permettra, lorsque son usage sera généralisé, d’ouvrir les portes du marché du travail européen beaucoup plus efficacement qu’un diplôme national.

                Afin d’accélérer la reconnaissance transnationale, la partie du Portfolio répondant essentiellement à la fonction de présentation des compétences en langues, c’est-à-dire le « Passeport des langues», a été standardisé pour les utilisateurs adultes.

                L’une de ses caractéristiques essentielles est l’auto évaluation des acquisitions linguistiques, selon des critères définis au niveau européen. L’expérience montre que l’auto évaluation joue un rôle très important pour le développement de l’autonomie et la motivation des élèves.

                Un site Internet pour le Portfolio européen des langues est en cours d’élaboration ; en attendant, des informations générales, les rapports intérimaires sur le projet pilote et des renvois vers les sites nationaux sont accessibles.

                Le ministre français de l’Education Jack Lang a indiqué sa volonté de généraliser l’usage du Portfolio en France, en même temps que l’apprentissage des langues vivantes dès le plus jeune âge.

Contacts : Conseil de l’Europe, Division des langues vivantes, Direction de l’éducation et de l’enseignement supérieur , F-67075 STRASBOURG CEDEX, France, Tel. +33 3 88 41 32 48   fax +33 3 88 41 27 06 ; e-mail : decs-lang@coe.int ; Site Internet


17-21 April 2001

35th International IATEFL Conference will be held at the Conference Centre and The Quality Hotel in Brighton, UK. The conference programme offers multiple opportunities for professional contact and development. International presenters will give workshops, talks, panel discussions and poster sessions for over 1300 delegates to enjoy.

A social programme will be arranged for delegates, beginning with a Reception for all registered participants on the evening of Tuesday 17 April. During the week, entertainment will include poetry, relaxation, quiz night, music and dancing.

 Several Pre-Conference Events are planned on Tuesday 17 April specifically for delegates who wish to concentrate on a particular topic. This year, the  Special Interest Groups organising Pre-Conference Events are: Learner Independence & Teacher Development, Media & Teacher Trainers, Young Learners & Testing, Evaluation + Assessment, Literature + Cultural Studies & Computers, ELT Management, English for Specific Purposes, Pronunciation, Global Issues & the Materials Development Association.

Information: IATEFL Head Office, 3 Kingsdown Chambers, Whitstable, CT5 2FL, UK, Tel: + 44 (0) 1227 276528, Fax: + 44 1227 274415. Email: iatefl@compuserve.com


Launceston – Tasmania (Australia), August 10-13 2000

1 Background

 Again, there was little time to settle in and catch up after returning from the FIPLV meetings and World Congress in Paris.  Invited by AFMLTA Vice-President, Peter Voss, to make a plenary presentation at the State Conference 2000 of the Modern Language Teachers Association of Tasmania (MLTAT), I could hardly refuse.

2 Introduction

 Having to work on August 10, I was unable to leave early enough to arrive in Launceston in time for the civic reception.  As a result, an 18.30 departure saw me in Launceston at 19.30.  Having travelled there with Jackie Love, President of the Association of French Teachers in Victoria (AFTV), we were met at Launceston Airport by Peter Voss.  Whisked away to dinner with colleagues and organisers, enabling me to catch up, an enjoyable evening preceded a nocturnal trip in the country to reach the farm of Peter Voss in Notley Hills.  This became ‘home’ for the next three evenings, a guest of Peter’s charming hospitality.

3. MLTAT State Conference 2000

 The MLTAT State Conference 2000 took place at the Launceston Campus of the

University of Tasmania.

3.1 The Participants

 Some 150 participants of the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors from across Australia were present to enjoy and benefit from the Conference. I was  particularly delighted to catch up with former AFMLTA colleagues like Barrie Muir, Cheryl Ransom, MLTAT officers of the past and present, like Joan von Bibra and Suzanne de Salis, and other state affiliates, such as Anna van Hoof of MLTAQ.  Some, like Jackie Love, Jillian Taylor, Anna van Hoof I had seen recently in Paris, so some reminiscing was on the agenda.

3.2 The Program

 Student performances interpolated the official opening on the Friday by the Mayor of Launceston, John Lees, and an excellent plenary presentation by Tony Liddicoat on ‘Intercultural Language Teaching : Learning Culture through Language’.   Another plenary followed morning tea, this time presented by Anna van Hoof on ‘Foreign Languages as the Pearl in the Curriculum Oyster’.

 The remaining plenary sessions included Lesley Harbon, ‘Angels Bearing Gifts from Strange Lands’ and my revision of the plenary address at FIPLV 2000, ‘Meeting the Challenge of Global Multilingualism in an Age of Technological Revolution’.

 Interspersed with the above plenaries was a broad choice of parallel sessions which covered among other topics strategies and resources for the primary and secondary classrooms; language-specific items for Auslan, French, German, Indonesian and Japanese; technology (electronic greeting cards, websites, comic chat, developments and strategies; multimedia, the Internet); motivation; overseas trips; transition; curriculum design; cultural activities; and multiple intelligences. Barrie Muir provided the conference summary as a component of an entertaining closing address.

4 Socio-Cultural Activities

 The civic reception missed, the first event was the Thursday dinner before the Conference Dinner on the Friday. An excellent initiative of the MLTAT - which I had experienced during my first visit to the island in 1984 - was an array of performances by students; in fact, every conference break included music, dance or song by student groups learning a range of languages. On the Sunday, there was a relaxed lunch at the Quamby Golf and Country Club where I enjoyed some rather primitive golf (on my part) with Sue Smith.  Others played boules in the wintry sunshine.

5 Conclusion

 Congratulations are extended to the organisers, Peter Voss and Sue Rae, and the members of their organising team.  It was an excellent conference.

6 The Return

 A chat with Peter Voss before the 1800 flight with Jackie Love, saw us arrive back in Melbourne at 1900 ... and home at 2030.

Denis Cunningham

President : FIPLV

September 13, 2000


Rotorua – New Zealand, July 2 - 5 2000

1 Background

 Invited as a plenary speaker to the NZALT Conference in 1998 in Dunedin, I made a commitment at that time to attend the next NZALT Conference in 2000 in Rotorua.  NZALT is one of the most active FIPLV members south of the equator and hosts excellent conferences.

 It was also another opportunity to forge closer trans-Tasman collaboration and friendship, initiated by my attending their conference in Auckland in 1983 and replicated by many others over the years, who crossed ‘the ditch’ between Australia and New Zealand.

2 Introduction

 Rising at 04.00 on June 30, I took the 06.50 flight to Auckland, arriving at 12.30 local time.  There were some hours to devote to my review of David Crystal’s new text, Language Death, before catching up with a friend for dinner.

 A 09.00 departure for a leisurely drive through the charming countryside saw arrival in Rotorua (via Tirau) at 13.30.  Rotorua, a singular centre for thermal springs, hot mud pools and the whiff of sulphur, has a lot to offer.  A visit to the thermal park of Wai-o-tapu was an excellent way to settle in, before dinner with colleagues.

3 NZALT Conference 2000

 The NZALT Conference was conducted in conjunction with two others, the Sasakawa and Interuniversity Conferences.

3.1 The Participants

 Almost 300 participants were present to enjoy and benefit from the Conference, most of these coming from all corners of New Zealand, complemented by a sizeable contingent from Australia.  I was particularly delighted to catch up with Gail Spence (incoming President), Simon Curnow (outgoing President), Jan Robertson (NZALT Treasurer) and Lesley Paris - all of whom had attended the 1999 AFMLTA Conference in Adelaide - Jim Madden (whom I had met when he organised the 1983 NZALT Conference in Auckland), Noel Watts (also met in 1983 and encountered at the FIPLV World Congress in Recife in 1997), Barbara and Roy Dineen, among many others.

3.2 The Program

 In an approach which I remembered well from 1983, the first day was devoted to language-specific (i.e. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) sessions, following conference registration. 

The second day saw the official opening held at the Rotorua Convention Centre.  It began with a traditional Maori welcome, which I have always admired, including the ceremonial rubbing of noses!  Delegates then enjoyed a stimulating presentation by His Excellency Aneurin Hughes, Head of the Delegation of the European Commission to Australia and New Zealand, before an excellent plenary by Prof. David Ingram on ‘Attitudes for a New Millennium: the Challenge to Language Education’.  A spectacular performance by children of a local school followed, before more language-specific sessions.

 The third day provided a rich mix of plenaries and workshops, where we were able to enjoy the expertise of  … Noel Watts : ‘Language Teaching in a Changing Society’,  Jillian Taylor : ‘Multimedia in the LOTE Classroom - Selection Criteria  and Implementation’, Roger Bartlett : ‘The Embedded Approach: Using the other Key Learning Areas as a source of Language when Teaching Japanese in Queensland Schools’, Christian Crevola and Carolyn Harden: ‘Keeping Your Sense of Humour in the LOTE Classroom’,  Ron Holt : ‘The RAT Technique of Teaching Reading’,  while I contributed on ‘Meeting the Challenges of Global Multilingualism in an Age of Technological Evolution’, a version of the paper I had prepared for FIPLV 2000.

 A parallel program session on technology was also available, with all of the above culminating in a most enjoyable NZALT Annual General Meeting.   The final day began with another excellent plenary by Prof. Rod Ellis, ‘What Makes for Successful Foreign Language Learning’, before a memorable closing ceremony with the especial guest being The Right Honorable Lianne Dalziel, MP.

 Then lunch with the NZALT Committee and members of the Organising


4 Socio-Cultural Activities

 The New Zealanders do it well!  From the opening cocktail party at the Bathhouse Museum, a Mayoral Reception hosted by the Mayor of Rotorua, Grahame Hall, to the conference dinner, including a riveting display of Maori (and not so Maori) dancing, there was something for everyone, leaving little time for sleep as networking possibilities were plentiful.

 Socialising and networking were also to the fore over lunches and (language-specific) dinners, while most of us availed ourselves of the plentiful tourist opportunities in what is described as the ‘Maori  heartland’.  One such opportunity for me was the obligatory visit to the famous Whakarewarewa Park on the outskirts of Rotorua, where I joined Aneurin Hughes and David Ingram for an enchanting tour led by our Maori guide, Moena.

5 Conclusion

 The NZALT 2000 Conference was excellent and a credit to its organisers, Laytee George and Denis Fouty, in particular.  My heartiest congratulations are extended to them and all others who assisted. As indicated previously, this conference provided a rich mix of academic and practical sessions, offering many opportunities for networking, collegiality and forging friendships even over the pool table at 02.00!

6 The Return

 In a rare luxury of self-indulgence, I stayed a further night in Rotorua for additional networking - and spa!  One can’t go to Rotorua without enjoying the natural thermal springs which characterise almost all hotels.

 Another leisurely drive via Tirau and Huntly for lunch, before arriving in Auckland and the inevitable return flight at 18.00.  Arriving at the Melbourne Airport at 20.00 (local time), I was finally home at 21.35 ... in time to watch some of the tennis from Wimbledon ...

Denis Cunningham

President : FIPLV

31 August 2000

PLM 2001

33rd Poznań Linguistic Meeting, 27-29 April 2001

The 33rd Poznań Linguistic Meeting organized by the School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland, will be devoted to discussing the challenges for linguistics in the 21st century.

                The already known points on the programme of PLM 2001 are:

·         A workshop on Challenges in Computer-Assisted Applied Linguistics organized  by Prof. Włodzimierz Sobkowiak, Adam Mickiewicz University,  swlodek@ifa.amu.edu.pl .

·         A workshop on Language and Global Communication organized by Dr Adam Jaworski, Cardiff University, jaworski@cardiff/ac.uk .

·         A session on Challenges for Natural Linguistics in the 21 century organized by Prof. Katarzyna Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Adam Mickiewicz University, dkasia@ifa.amu.edu.pl .

·         A talk by Prof. Dayfydd Gibbon, University of Bielefeld, on Efficient documentation of endangered languages for research and application.

·         Other already suggested areas/topics: sociolinguistics of American dialects, evolutionary linguistics, historical linguistics, second language acquisition, computational phonetics, teaching of phonetics and phonology.

Proposals for papers (as well as other sessions or workshops) are invited. Two-page abstracts (including bibliography) should be submitted to the PLM 2001 address by the end of December 2000, preferably by e-mail plm@ifa.amu.edu.pl; alternatively you may send us a diskette (Word for Windows or .rtf). Abstracts will be reviewed by an international advisory board. Notification of acceptance will be sent to the authors by the 16th of February 2001. Abstracts for workshops should be

sent directly to convenors.

Information: PLM 2001, School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Collegium Novum, al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, Poland. Tel.: + 48 61/ 829-35-06; Fax: 048 61/ 829-35-05; e-mail: plm@amu.edu.pl



Opening Minds – 29 March – 1/2 April 2001

Society for Effective Affective Learning is inviting to the 9th SEAL International Conference which will be hosted by the King’s School in Canterbury, Kent, UK. The theme is the new paradigm which is emerging in many different fields to provide a more coherent account of the universe and elements within it. Keynote speakers from the fields of science, ecology and medicine include: Chris Clarke and Joan Walton, Brian Goodwin, Dr Rosy Daniel, Marshall Rosenberg  (Non-violent Communication), Michael Deason-Barrow (Music and the Mind).  Presenters from education, training and business will relate the theme to learning.

For more information please contact Conference Managers, 37 Park Hall Road, East Finchley, London N2 9PT, UK; Tel.: + 44 (0) 20 8883 3445; Fax: + 44 (0)20 8444 0339; E-mail: seal@saffirepress.co.uk

34th SLE Meeting

Language Study in Europe at the Turn of the Millennium

Towards the integration of cognitive, historical and cultural approaches tolanguage. Leuven, Belgium : August 28th -  31st 2001

We are pleased to announce the International Conference on „Language Study  in Europe at the turn of the Millennium” to be held in Leuven, Belgium, on  28-31 August 2001. This 34th meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea  is open to all scholars interested in promoting discussions, exchanging  ideas and reporting on recent progress on a variety of issues related to  cognitive, historical and cultural approaches to language.

 Call for papers:

Since the focus of this year’s conference will be to represent the full  breadth of research all over Europe in ways that will lead to useful mutual  interaction, we especially welcome contributions in the following domains:

-          cognitive-functional accounts of grammatical, lexical and semantic issues;

-          historical analysis of grammatical, lexical and semantic issues;

-          historical studies of linguistic currents and conceptions;

-          research on translation and intercultural communication;

-          translation and/as language policy within the various institutions (nations, European Union, international organizations, the communication  society);

-          comparative linguistics and typology;

-          past, present and future of linguistics curricula at European universities;

-          language contact and policy in European countries, especially in  multilingual states.

Papers may be based on research or practical experience. Individual papers  are 30 minutes long, discussion time included.

Scholars from different countries can arrange to organize a workshop  dealing with a specific topic. We invite you to write an abstract with the  mention "workshop" and with details on its length and the day chosen.  Workshops should be open to all participants and favour the debate on  ongoing research. To improve the interaction among scholars we invite all participants to  prepare a hand-out, a computer assisted presentation or transparencies, or  a combination of these.

 Guidelines for the submission of abstracts

The abstract should be maximum 500 words, exclusive of references. When

printed out, the title and body should fit on a single page of 12-point  type, with ca. 1 inch or 2 cm. margins.

Electronic submissions are highly encouraged (MS Word, text or rtf files,

with the ab-name mentioned: e.g. ab-cornillie.doc), and may be sent to the  following address.

We invite you to submit the abstracts accompanied by a separate sheet

indicating name, address and affiliation of the author(s) together with the  title of the abstract and the research topic to the following address:

Bert Cornillie (Secretary)

SLE Meeting 2001

Departement Linguďstiek

Blijde-Inkomststraat 21

B-3000 Leuven


Phone 00 32 16 324765, Fax 00 32 16 324767

Email: SLE2001@arts.kuleuven.ac.be

The final deadline for receipt of proposals is February 28th, 2001. The program committee will notify those who submitted proposals by March  30th, 2001 (by Email) and by April 15th, 2001 (by post) whether their  proposal has been accepted.


We will try to obtain a grant from the European Commission to finance the  active participation of young researchers. The conditions are: (1) be a  national of a Member State or of an Associated State (Bulgaria, Cyprus,  Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania,  Slovakia, Slovenia; Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland) and (2)  not have reached the age of 35 at the time of the Conference. For reasons  of funding early registration is highly recommended. All participants should pay the registration fee before May 30th, 2001. After May 30th the registration fee is susceptible to raise.

On line registration


The venue of the conference will be the Faculty of Arts (Faculteit  Letteren), located in the center of the town and within walking distance to  the train station.

Invited speakers

Peter Auer (Universität Freiburg), Jacques François (Université de Caen),  John Joseph (University of Edinburgh), Anthony Pym (Universitat Rovira i  Virgili, Tarragona), Pieter Seuren (Max Planck Instituut, Nijmegen), Tove  Skutnabb-Kangas (Roskilde Universitetscenter), Gerd Wotjak (Universität  Leipzig).

Social programme

There will be a full social programme, including university reception, a  guided tour through Leuven, conference dinner, and a whole day excursion  (post-conference tour).

Important dates

- February 28th, 2001: Deadline for submission

- April 15th, 2001: Notification of acceptance

- May 30th, 2001: Payment

- August 28th to 31st, 2001: Conference


A new TESOL Caucus on global, peace and environmental education has been formed under the heading TESOLers for Social Responsibility (TSR). It is open to all TESOL members interested in global issues. This will hold global education events at the annual TESOL conference, issue a twice yearly newsletter on global issues, social responsibility and English teaching. A TSR e-mail list and a website will be set up. If you are interested in joining in, contact Kip Cates, Tottori University, Tottori City, Japan 680-8551; kcates@fed.tottori-u.ac.jp


The 35th annual convention of TESOL will take place in St. Louis, Missouri, USA  between February 27 and March 3. As usual participants will come from every continent to bring the benefit of their experience and build new alliances. First timers, new members, and experienced teachers will find valuable sessions at TESOL 2001. New events include two graduate colloquia for Master’s and doctoral students. Sessions organized by Strands follow particular interests in depth. Top-notch presenters will demystify the perplexing issues in EFL, technology in language teaching, English for special purposes, and much more.

Information: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. 700 South Washington Street, Suite 200, Va. 22314 Alexandria USA

The 14th International Conference on Foreign and Second Language Acquisition, May 24-26, Szczyrk

Call for Papers

The Institute of English at the University of Silesia is pleased to announce the 14th International Conference on Foreign and second Language Acquisition. Traditionally, this conference focuses on research in foreign language learning and its practical implications for language teaching. However, the leading theme of the coming conference is going to be vocabulary acquisition.

                The event will be held from Thursday, May 24 to Saturday, May 26 2001 in Szczyrk, a resort town in the Beskid Mountains of Southern Poland. On the last day of the conference we plan a sight-seeing trip to Kraków.

                Paper abstracts should be sent before January 21 to the Institute of English. You will be allowed a 20 minute presentation, followed by 5 minutes for discussion. Please prepare your paper as a print-out and on a floppy disk, as selected papers will be later published in the Conference Proceedings. You are kindly requested to use WORD for Windows 6.0 format.

For conference related matters, contact Prof. Janusz Arabski, Institute of English, University of Silesia, ul. Żytnia 10, 41-205 Sosnowiec, Poland. Tel/fax: (+ 48 32) 291 74 17. E-mail: enoffice@ares.fils.us.edu.pl


Call for Proposals to host WorldCALL II in 2003

Please visit the WorldCALL website for further information.

Following the successful WorldCALL conference, held at the University of Melbourne, Australia, in 1998, the WorldCALL steering committee invites proposals to host the second WorldCALL conference in the year 2003.

The idea of WorldCALL was originally conceived by ATELL and EUROCALL, and he conference steering committee comprises representatives of these and other major associations such as CALICO and IALL. The WorldCALL II steering committee is chaired by Professor Graham Davies, until recently President of EUROCALL. The full committee is listed below.

Proposals are now invited from colleagues whose institutions wish to host WorldCALL in 2003. An information pack for prospective conference organisers is available from the EUROCALL office (EUROCALL@hull.ac.uk).

Proposals must be received by 31 January 2001, addresssed to:

June Thompson


The Language Institute

University of Hull, HU6 7RX, UK.

Tel: +44(0)1482 465872

Fax: +44 (0)1482 473816

WorldCALL Steering Committee: Graham Davies (Chair), June Thompson (Secretary), Graham Chesters (Financial Advisor), David Herren (Technical Advisor / Webmaster), Maria Balaskó (Hungary), Nicole Chénik (CERCLES), Bob Fischer (CALICO, USA), Nina Garrett (IALL, USA), June Gassin (WorldCALL 98 Organiser), Akio Iwasaki (LET, Japan), Rainer Kussler (South Africa), Mike Levy (ATELL, Australia), Peter Liddell (CCALL, Canada), Vera Menezes (Brazil)

Madanmohan Rao (Planet Asia, India), Bernd Rüschoff (EUROCALL).

Books and Journals

Book Review

Language Play, Language Learning,  by  Guy Cook, published 2000 by Oxford University Press,  ISBN 0-19442153-8 235 pp.  Review by Dr.Francisco Gomes de Matos, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil:  e-mail  fcgm@elogica.com.br

In the 70s there appeared two books  dealing with what this reviewer would now call  Ludolinguistics :   U.S. anthropological linguist Peter Farb´s Word Play. What happens when  people talk   ( New York : Alfred Knopf, 1973)  and  U.S. linguists Don Nilsen and Alleen Nilsen ´s   Language Play. An Introduction to Linguistics  ( Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1978 ).  10 years after the Nilsens´  innovative book  -  they made a cogent, initial case for " learning  language through play " (p.29) - the versatile British linguist  David Crystal  shared his  wisdom  with us through his Language Play  ( London: Penguin, 1998).  Now, at at threshold of the 21st century, another  brilliant British  applied linguist  contributes to  the  still relatively small but promisingly inspiring  ludolinguistic bibliography.This time,  two important concepts are juxtaposed in a book´s title,  so as to express the interactive,   integrated nature of  linguistic play and learning. There are three Parts: 1. Forms, meanings,  and uses  of language play; 2. Theories and explanations of language play and of the  random and creative play of nature;  and  3. Current orthodoxies in language teaching and  future prospects for language education. There follow a 15-page Bibliography and an 11-play Index  Given this reviewer´s interest in and commitment to  Language Users´  linguistic and cultural  rights, it was most gratifying to come across several statements in  this thought-provokingly  original book  which can be used for making a case  for    " language learners ´ right to play " . The  last chapter should become required reading for all Language-Teacher-Education Programs, because of  its illuminating reflections on  play in language teaching and on the  author´s cogent  questioning of  negative attitudes toward play. Much more could be said in praise of  this highly informative, formative, and engagingly convincing work, but readers should judge by themselves. With the publication of this book, Ludolinguistics  has found its permanent place in the  sun. May the tradition  move on, inspired by  Cook ´s creative explorations of a domain which should be treated  gratifyingly.  Both author and publisher are to be commended for  helping language users, language learners, teachers, and researchers to value language play in  and through  language learning-and-teaching.     

Publications received

American Language Review. The Magazine for Language Teaching Professionals. March/April 2000.

Council of Europe Medium-term Programme of Activities 2000 – 2002. European Centre for Modern Languages.

English Teaching Forum. Vol. 38. No. 2, April, No. 3, July & No. 4, October   2000.

The Contribution of Modern Language Teaching to Peace. Workshop No. 15/98 Report. European Centre for Modern Languages, Graz, 30 Sept. – 3 Oct. 1998.

ETAI Forum. English Teachers’ Association of Israel. Vol. XI No. 3, Summer 2000.

FOR A CHANGE . Moral Re-Armament. Vol. 13. No. 3 & 4, June/July – August/September 2000.

Global Issues in Language Education Newsletter. National Special Interest Group of the Japan Association of Language Teachers (JALT), Issue 39 – April, 40 – September, 2000.

IATEFL Issues. No. 155 – June/July, 156 – August/September, 157 – October/November  2000.

IATFLPoland Newsletter. No. 18.

IDV Rundbrief Heft 65, Oktober 2000.

Les langues modernes. Bulletin de l’Association des professeurs de Langues Vivantes (a.p.l.v.), nu. 2,  mai – juni – juillet, nu. 3, aout – septembre -  octobre  2000.

LE POLYGLOTTE. Les Langues Modernes No. 41 & 42. Supplément au  Les langues modernes. Bulletin de l’Association des professeurs de Langues Vivantes (a.p.l.v.),  mai & septembre 2000.

Lingua. Boletín del Centro de Información y Documentación sobre Traducción y Terminología en Lengua Española, Victoria Ocampo, Biblioteca Nacional, No. 03, Enero – Abril, No. 04 , Mayo – Agosto 2000.

LMS Lingua. Riksföreningen fór Lärarna i Moderna Språk. Nr  3 - 5, 2000.

Neusprachliche Mitteilungen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis, Herausgegeben vom Fachverband Moderne Fremdsprachen im Pädagogischen Zeitschriftenverlag (FMF), H. 2 & 3, 2000.

New Routes. DISAL S.A. Distribuidores Associados de Livros, São Paulo. 10, July  & 11, October, 2000.

PSiCL – Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics. Vol. 36. Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań 2000.

SAVTO/SAALT Tydskrif vir Taalonderrig – Journal for language Teaching. Vol. 34: No. 2,  June & No. 3, November, 2000.

Studia Anglica Posnaniensia. Vol. 35. Poznań 2000.

TEAM. Mary Glasgow magazines. No. 1 September/October 1999.

Tempus, Newsletter of the Federation of Foreign Language Teachers in Finland SUKOL, No. 4-7, 2000.

TESOL Greece. No. 66, April – June, No. 67, July – September,  2000.

TESOL Matters. Vol. 10  No. 2-4, June - November 2000.


The Latest on Language and Languages

A news service provided and edited by the Fédération Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes (FIPLV).

FIPLV contact address: PO Box 216, Belgrave, 3160, Australia.

FIPLV website

FIPLV President: Denis Cunningham. PO Box 216, Belgrave, 3160, Australia. Telephone: Int. Code  + 61 39 754 47 14.  Fax: Int. Code: +61 39 754 64 19. Email: djc@netspace.net.au

FIPLV Vice-President: Tuula Penttilä, Viherlaaksonie 24, SF-02710 Espoo, Finland. Telephone: Int. Code: +358 059 45 07. Fax: Int. Code: + 358 0 5023 460. Email: tspentti@cc.helsinki.fi

FIPLV Secretary-General: Judith Hamilton, Flat 64, 3 Whitehall Court, London SW1A 2EL. Telephone/fax 0171 839 5530;. Email: jcochr7029@AOL.com

FIPLV Editor: Teresa Siek-Piskozub. Editorial Office: School of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodległości 4, PL-61-874 Poznań, Poland. Telephone: Int. Code + 48 61 426 94 06. Fax: Int. Code+ 48 61 829 35 05. Email: piskozub@amu.edu.pl

FIPLV Treasurer: Dieter Herold, Kulenkampstrasse 15 H, D-23566 Lübeck, Germany. Telephone: International Code+ 49 451 3 27 91. Fax: International Code + 49 451 3 55 43. Email: DieterHerold@t-online.de

Subscription at the price of CHF 45 a year available from Dieter Herold.

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Any item may be quoted, reproduced or translated provided acknowledgement is given to FIPLV WORLD NEWS.

From the editor

This time FIPLV World News Readers get 2 in 1. It is because a very unfriendly virus ‘pretty park’  infected my email system under the cover of a friendly address and ate out the content of the No. 49 issue and more.

In this double number Judith Hamilton is warning us against intercultural misunderstandings (No ‘one’ way to development). Denis Cunningham informs about FIPLV plans for the future and reports on the past (Notes from the President).  Information on European Year of Languages 2001 is given by Dieter Herold who has been appointed to represent FIPLV in EYL Committee. Some more information is added by the Council of Europe further in the issue. Reports on past and forthcoming events in FIPLV Regions can be found in FIPLV News.  Our Congress Calendar informs about conferences and congresses planned between  the years 2000 - 2003. The Member Associations, as well as the institutions co-operating with us, discuss about their recent and future activities (News and Views). We have a report from Finland on ‘Autonomous Learning... ‘ in Forum on Controversial Issues. Francisco Gomes de Matos reviews ‘Language Play, Language Learning’ by Guy Cook in Books and Journals. We also publish a long list of journals issued by and for language teachers, sent to the Editor’s address.

With the glass of champagne from the front cover I would like to wish our Readers all the best not only in the next year but in all triennium.

Teresa Siek-Piskozub

Editor of Publications-FIPLV

Notes for Contributors

Contributions, announcements and letters should be sent to the Editor’s address, by post or e-mail. Advertisements should be sent to Dieter Herold (see back cover). Short contributions (up to 250 words), such as letters and announcements, can be type-written. Longer contributions should be accompanied by a PC-readable disc, with the article both in the original WP format (e.g. WordPerfect, AmiPro, Word for Windows) and in ASCII form (i.e. a .TXT file). Please provide a brief bio-statement with the office address. Contributions and discs are non-returnable. The Editor reserves the right to make editorial changes in any manuscript. The author will be consulted if substantial changes are envisaged.

DAC do następnego nr

Influence of Features of Language on Language Teaching

by Francisco Gomes de Matos                                                      

1.  Introduction: from features of language to the influence of linguistics  

A look at introductory Linguistics books and  at specialized dictionaries published  since the 50s,  shows that language   -  the key concept-term in  that science -  has  been  variously  described or characterized, thus reflecting the different  theoretical  and/or applicational, subjective views of the definers. Cf. Hockett (1958), Bolinger  and Sears (1981), Harris & Hodges (1995), Crystal (1999), Trask (1999),  Brown and Attardo (2000), to mention some sources  in English. If, as Johnson and  Johnson (1998: 198) cogently state,  " In the twentieth century, it is the influence of  linguistics which has been pre-eminent", one of the ways of documenting such  influential role in Language Teahcing  would be examining  what  views of the nature of language have been prioritized by teachers, teacher-educators, and materials  designers all over world, a formidable task which perhaps FIPLV  could take on,  with the assistance of its expanding network. Something of a very much smaller range  was done by Gomes de Matos  (1976), in a  doctoral dissertation on the influence of principles of linguistics on teachers´manuals published in 17 countries. Having written on that  problematique  for  30 years,  I feel the time may be ripe for a checklist to be shared with colleagues, so that every reader of the Newsletter compile his/her own  enumeration of the salient features (the late U.S. anthropological linguist  Hocket used  "design features"  in his now "classic" 1958 work; interestingly, Brown and Attardo adopted the same label, 42 years later; Bolinger and Sears (1981) opt for "traits of language" ).

2. Features of  language : a personal choice  

If you were asked to produce a listing of the most salient features/ traits of  language, especially those which you feel have been most influential  in   language teaching in general  and in your own personal teaching of languages,  what would you include and why? The following enumeration reflects  my own  interpretation of what  to me  would seem to be the most influential  features of  language - which can also be taken as principles of language and/or of linguistics - in their interaction with language education. The sequence is not hierarchically  motivated, since all of the features are taken as of equal importance for a holistic view of language.

Note that some variant wordings  are given. In formulating  each statement, you are to make explicit whether  language is /can be / could be ... 

Language is structured/ systematic/ hierarchic/ a structure/ a system  / a faculty / a cognitive system /cognitive arbitrary/ conventional system /  spoken /written/ signed / a multirepresentational system / social/ a socialization system / cultural/ a cultural system / an  intercultural system & nbsp; acquired / an acquired system                           learned / a learned system/ integrated/ holistic/ a holistic system                         variable / a variable system / user-centered/ a user-centered system                         interactive/ interactional                          humanizing/ a system for humanizing users                         translatable/interpretable                         contextual/context-based                         universal/ universally available  .

What other features would  you add ? Why ? How comprehensively has  language been  perceived and applied  in the field of Language Education ? 

Herein lies a challenge to Teacher-Education  in the next century. The humanizing  feature -  the outcome of insights derived from traditions in  human linguistic  rights,  Peace Linguistics , etc. -  is still  in its  applicational infancy.  For a suggestive, recent example  of how the "humanizing" perspective is  expressed as "thoughtful"(socially responsible) language use", see  Kern( 2000), a literacy-centered approach to language teaching, written  by an up-and-coming  language teacher / applied linguist.What can we, as  language educators, tell  linguists about our own  activity that will help them  perceive and probe language more deeply ?

May the influence be reciprocally  seen, felt and practiced, so that linguists and language educators work  cooperatively,  for the communicative well-being of humankind.                                                                                                                                                                                             


Bolinger, D. &  D. A. Sears (1981)  Aspects of Language.  3rd. Ed. New York: Harcourt,  Brace Jovanovich. 

Brown, S. & S. Attardo (2000) An Introduction to Applied Linguistics and Sociolinguistics  for Nonspecialists. Ann Arbor, the University of Michigan Press 

Crystal, D. (1999) Penguin Dictionary of Language. 2nd ed. London, Penguin 

Gomes de Matos, F. (1976) Lingüística Aplicada ao Ensino de Inglęs. Săo Paulo, Brazil: Mc-Graw-Hill  Harris

Hocket,C.F. (1958) A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York, Macmillan 

Johnson, K. & H. Johnson (1998) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics.  A Handbook for Language Teaching. Oxford, Blackwell Publishers 

Kern, R.(2000)  Literacy and Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. 

Theodore L. &  R. H. Hodges (eds.) (1995) The Literacy Dictionary. The Vocabulary of  Reading and Writing. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association 

Trask, R. L. (1999) Key Concepts in Language and Linguistics.  London, Routledge    

Editor’s Note: Francisco Gomes de Matos is a professor in Department of Letters, CAC, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.